Five hundred seventy-seven guys (351 HIV negative, 153 HIV-positive, and 73 HIV-oblivious) reported UAI in 26% of 878 online, and 23% of 903 offline casual partnerships. The crude OR of online dating for UAI was 1.36 (95 % CI 1.03-1.81). Backpage escorts in Osborne. HIV-positive men were more likely to report UAI than HIV-negative men (49% vs. 28% of partnerships). Corrected for demographic characteristics, online dating had no significant effect on UAI among HIV-negative and HIV status-unaware guys, but HIV-positive men were more likely to have UAI with online partners (aOR = 1.65 95 % CI 1.05-2.57). After correction for associate and partnership characteristics the effect of online/offline dating on UAI among HIV positive MSM was reduced and no longer significant.
Men who have sex with men (MSM) frequently make use of the Net to discover sex partners. Several studies have shown that MSM are more prone to engage in unprotected anal intercourse with sex partners they meet through the Internet (on-line) than with partners they meet at social places (offline) 1 - 3 This implies that guys who get partners online may be at a higher risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV 4 - 6 Although higher rates of UAI are reported with internet partners, the threat of HIV transmission also depends on precise knowledge of one's own and the sex partners' HIV status 7 - 10
A meta-analysis in 2006 found limited evidence that acquiring a sex partner online raises the danger of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) 3 Many previous studies compared men with internet partners to men with offline partners. However, guys favoring online dating might differ in various unmeasured regards from men favoring offline dating, resulting in incomparable behavioural profiles. A more recent meta-analysis included several studies analyzing MSM with both online and also offline acquired sex partners and found evidence for an association between UAI and internet partners, which may imply a mediating effect of more info on partners, (including perceived HIV status) on UAI 13
With increased acquaintance in sexual partnerships, for example by concordant ethnicity, age, lifestyle, HIV status, and raising sex frequency, the chances for UAI increase as well 14 - 16 We compared the incidence of UAI in online got casual partnerships to that in offline got casual partnerships among MSM who reported both on-line and offline casual partners in the preceding six months. We hypothesised that MSM who date sex partners both online and offline, report more UAI with the casual partners they date on the internet, and that this effect is partly described through better understanding of partner characteristics, including HIV status.
We used data from a cross-sectional study focusing on spread of STI via sexual networks 15 Between July 2008 and August 2009 MSM were recruited from the STI outpatient clinic of the Public Health Service of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Men were eligible for participation if they reported sexual contact with men during the six months preceding the STI consultation, they were at least 18years old, and might comprehend written Dutch or English. Individuals could participate more than once, if following visits to the clinic were related to a possible new STI episode. Participants were routinely screened for STI/HIV according to the standard procedures of the STI outpatient clinic 15 , 17 The study was approved by the medical ethics committee of the Academic Medical Center of Amsterdam (MEC 07/181), and written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Included in this analysis were men who reported sexual contact with at least one casual partner dated online as well one casual partner dated offline.
Participants completed a standardised anonymous questionnaire during their visit to the STI outpatient clinic while waiting for preliminary evaluation results after their consultation using a nurse or physician. The survey elicited information on socio-demographics and HIV status of the participant, the three most recent partners in the preceding six months, and information on sexual behavior with those partners. A comprehensive description of the study design and also the questionnaire is provided elsewhere 15 , 18 Our primary determinant of interest, dating place (e.g., the name of a bar, park, club, or the name of a website) was obtained for every partner, and categorised into online (websites), and offline (physical sites) dating locations. To simplify the terminology of differentiating the partners per dating place, we refer to them as online or offline partners.
HIV status of the participant was got by asking the question 'Do you know whether you're HIV infected?', with five answer alternatives: (1) I am definitely not HIV-infected; (2) I believe that I am not HIV-infected; (3) I don't understand; (4) I believe I may be HIV-infected; (5) I know for sure that I 'm HIV-infected. We categorised this into HIV negative (1,2), unknown (3), and HIV positive (4,5) status. The questionnaire enquired about the HIV status of each sex partner with all the question: 'Do you know whether this partner is HIV-infected?' with similar answer options as above. Perceived concordance in HIV status within partnerships was categorised as; (1) concordant; (2) discordant; (3) unknown. The final category represents all partnerships where the participant didn't understand his own status, or the status of his partner, or both. In this study the HIV status of the participant is self-reported and self-perceived. The HIV status of the sexual partner is as perceived by the participant.
As a way to investigate potential disclosure of HIV status we also asked the participant whether the casual sex partner knew the HIV status of the participant, together with the answer options: (1) no, (2) potentially, (3) yes. Backpage escorts in Osborne Manitoba. Sexual behavior with each partner was dichotomised as: (1) no anal intercourse or only shielded anal intercourse, and (2) unprotected anal intercourse. To ascertain the subculture, we asked whether the participant characterised himself or his partners as belonging to at least one of the following subcultures/lifestyles: casual, formal, alternative, drag, leather, military, sports, fashionable, punk/skinhead, rubber/lycra, gothic, bear, jeans, skater, or, if none of these characteristics were appropriate, other. Concordant lifestyle was categorised as: (1) concordant; (2) discordant. Casual partner sort was categorised by the participants into (1) known traceable and (2) anonymous partners.
We compared characteristics of participants by self-reported HIV status (using 2-tests for dichotomous and categorical variables and using rank sum test for continuous variables). We compared features of participants, partners, and partnership sexual behaviour by online or offline venture, and computed P values based on logistic regression with robust standard errors, accounting for correlated data. Continuous variables (i.e., age, amount of sex partners) are reported as medians with an interquartile range (IQR), and were categorised for inclusion in multivariate models. Random effects logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between dating place (online versus offline) and UAI. Likelihood ratio tests were used to measure the value of a variable in a model.
Prior to the analyses we developed a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representing a causal model of UAI. In this model some variants were putative causes (self-reported HIV status; online partner acquisition), others were considered as confounders (participants' age, participants' ethnicity, and no. Backpage escorts nearby Osborne, Canada. Backpage Escorts Near Me Osborne Lake Manitoba. Backpage Escorts Near Me Opekamank Manitoba. of male sex partners in preceding 6months), and some were supposed to be on the causal pathway between the primary exposure of interest and result (age difference between participant and partner; ethnic concordance; concordance in life styles; HIV concordance; partnership kind; sex frequency within venture; group sex with partner; sex-related substance use in venture).