Five hundred seventy-seven men (351 HIV-negative, 153 HIV-positive, and 73 HIV-oblivious) reported UAI in 26% of 878 on-line, and 23% of 903 offline casual partnerships. The crude OR of online dating for UAI was 1.36 (95 % CI 1.03-1.81). Backpage escorts near Hermitage. HIV-positive men were more likely to report UAI than HIV negative men (49% vs. 28% of ventures). Fixed for demographic features, online dating had no significant effect on UAI among HIV-negative and HIV status-unaware guys, but HIV positive men were more likely to have UAI with online partners (aOR = 1.65 95 % CI 1.05-2.57). After correction for partner and partnership features the effect of online/offline dating on UAI among HIV positive MSM was reduced and no longer critical.
Men who have sex with men (MSM) often make use of the Web to find sex partners. Several research have shown that MSM are more inclined to participate in unprotected anal intercourse with sex partners they meet through the Internet (online) than with partners they meet at social places (offline) 1 - 3 This implies that guys who acquire partners online may be at a higher risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV 4 - 6 Although higher rates of UAI are reported with on-line partners, the risk of HIV transmission also depends on accurate knowledge of one's own and the sex partners' HIV status 7 - 10
A meta-evaluation in 2006 found limited evidence that getting a sex partner online raises the risk of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) 3 Many previous studies compared men with online partners to guys with offline partners. Nevertheless, men preferring online dating might differ in various unmeasured regards from guys favoring offline dating, resulting in incomparable behavioural profiles. A more recent meta-analysis contained several studies analyzing MSM with both online and offline acquired sex partners and found evidence for an association between UAI and on-line partners, which may suggest a mediating effect of more info on partners, (including perceived HIV status) on UAI 13
With increased acquaintance in sexual partnerships, for example by concordant ethnicity, age, lifestyle, HIV status, and raising sex frequency, the chances for UAI increase as well 14 - 16 We compared the occurrence of UAI in online acquired casual partnerships to that in offline obtained casual partnerships among MSM who reported both online and offline casual partners in the preceding six months. We hypothesised that MSM who date sex partners both online and offline, report more UAI with the casual partners they date on the internet, and that this effect is partially described through better understanding of partner characteristics, including HIV status.
We used data from a cross sectional study focusing on spread of STI via sexual networks 15 Between July 2008 and August 2009 MSM were recruited from the STI outpatient clinic of the Public Health Service of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Men were eligible for participation if they reported sexual contact with men during the six months preceding the STI consultation, they were at least 18years old, and might understand written Dutch or English. Individuals could participate more than once, if following visits to the practice were related to a possible new STI episode. Participants were routinely screened for STI/HIV according to the standard procedures of the STI outpatient clinic 15 , 17 The study was accepted by the medical ethics committee of the Academic Medical Center of Amsterdam (MEC 07/181), and written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Contained in this evaluation were men who reported sexual contact with at least one casual partner dated online as well one casual partner dated offline.
Participants completed a standardised anonymous survey during their trip to the STI outpatient clinic while waiting for preliminary evaluation results after their consultation using a nurse or doctor. The questionnaire elicited information on socio-demographics and HIV status of the participant, the three most recent partners in the preceding six months, and information on sexual conduct with those partners. A comprehensive description of the study design as well as the survey is supplied elsewhere 15 , 18 Our primary determinant of interest, dating location (e.g., the name of a bar, park, club, or the name of a site) was obtained for every partner, and categorised into online (websites), and offline (physical sites) dating places. To simplify the terminology of differentiating the partners per dating location, we refer to them as on-line or offline partners.
HIV status of the participant was got by asking the question 'Do you know whether you're HIV infected?', with five answer alternatives: (1) I 'm definitely not HIV-infected; (2) I believe that I'm not HIV-infected; (3) I do not understand; (4) I believe I may be HIV-infected; (5) I know for sure that I 'm HIV-contaminated. We categorised this into HIV-negative (1,2), unknown (3), and HIV positive (4,5) status. The questionnaire enquired about the HIV status of every sex partner with the question: 'Do you know whether this partner is HIV-contaminated?' with similar response options as above. Perceived concordance in HIV status within partnerships was categorised as; (1) concordant; (2) discordant; (3) unknown. The final group represents all partnerships where the participant didn't understand his own status, or the status of his partner, or both. In this study the HIV status of the participant is self-reported and self-perceived. The HIV status of the sexual partner is as perceived by the participant.
As a way to explore possible disclosure of HIV status we also asked the participant whether the casual sex partner knew the HIV status of the participant, with the reply alternatives: (1) no, (2) maybe, (3) yes. Backpage Escorts nearest Hermitage, Prince Edward Island. Sexual behaviour with each partner was dichotomised as: (1) no anal intercourse or just shielded anal intercourse, and (2) unprotected anal intercourse. To ascertain the subculture, we asked whether the participant characterised himself or his partners as belonging to one or more of the subsequent subcultures/lifestyles: casual, formal, alternative, drag, leather, military, sports, trendy, punk/skinhead, rubber/lycra, gothic, bear, jeans, skater, or, if none of these characteristics were related, other. Concordant lifestyle was categorised as: (1) concordant; (2) discordant. Casual partner kind was categorised by the participants into (1) known traceable and (2) anonymous partners.
We compared characteristics of participants by self-reported HIV status (using 2-evaluations for dichotomous and categorical variables and using rank sum test for continuous variables). We compared features of participants, partners, and venture sexual behavior by on-line or offline venture, and computed P values predicated on logistic regression with robust standard errors, accounting for related data. Continuous variables (i.e., age, amount of sex partners) are reported as medians with an interquartile range (IQR), and were categorised for inclusion in multivariate models. Random effects logistic regression models were used to examine the association between dating location (online versus offline) and UAI. Likelihood ratio tests were used to evaluate the value of a variable in a model.
Before the investigations we developed a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representing a causal model of UAI. In this model some variants were putative causes (self-reported HIV status; online partner acquisition), others were considered as confounders (participants' age, participants' ethnicity, and no. Backpage Escorts closest to Hermitage, Canada. Backpage Escorts Near Me Higgins Road Prince Edward Island. Backpage Escorts Near Me Hermanville Prince Edward Island. of male sex partners in preceding 6months), and some were presumed to be on the causal pathway between the primary exposure of interest and result (age difference between participant and partner; ethnic concordance; concordance in life styles; HIV concordance; partnership sort; sex frequency within venture; group sex with partner; sex-associated material use in partnership).