In order to analyze the potential mediating effect of more information on partners (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, we developed three multivariable models. In version 1, we adjusted the association between online/offline dating place and UAI for characteristics of the participant: age, ethnicity, number of sex partners in the preceding 6months, and self-perceived HIV status. In model 2 we added the venture characteristics (age difference, ethnic concordance, lifestyle concordance, and HIV concordance). In model 3, we adapted also for partnership sexual risk behaviour (i.e., sex-related drug use and sex frequency) and partnership sort (i.e., casual or anonymous). As we assumed a differential effect of dating location for HIV positive, HIV-negative and HIV status unknown MSM, an interaction between HIV status of the participant and dating place was included in all three models by making a brand new six-class variable. For clarity, the effects of online/offline dating on UAI are also presented separately for HIV-negative, HIV positive, and HIV-oblivious guys. We performed a sensitivity analysis confined to partnerships in which only one sexual contact occurred. Statistical significance was defined as P 0.05. No adjustments for multiple comparisons were made, in order not to lose potentially significant organizations. Backpage escorts nearby Ipswich. As a rather large number of statistical evaluations were done and reported, this approach does lead to an elevated risk of one or more false-positive associations. Evaluations were done using the statistical programme STATA, version 13 (STATA Intercooled, College Station, TX, USA).
Characteristics of on-line and offline partners and partnerships are shown in Table 2 The median age of the partners was 34years (IQR 28-40). Compared to offline partners, more on-line partners were Dutch (61.3% vs. 54.0%; P 0.001) and were defined as a known partner (77.7% vs. 54.4%; P 0.001). The HIV status of on-line partners was more often reported as known (61.4% vs. 49.4%; P 0.001), and in on-line partnerships, perceived HIV concordance was higher (49.0% vs. 39.8%; P 0.001). Participants reported that their on-line partners more often understood the HIV status of the participant than offline partners (38.8% vs. 27.2%; P 0.001). Participants more frequently reported multiple sexual contacts with internet partners (50.9% vs. 41.3%; P 0.001). Sex-related substance use, alcohol use, and group sex were less often reported with online partners.
In univariate analysis, UAI was significantly more inclined to happen in on-line than in offline ventures (OR = 1.36 95 % CI 1.03-1.81) (Table 4 ). The self-perceived HIV status of the participant was strongly associated with UAI (OR = 11.70 95 % CI 7.40-18.45). The impact of dating place on UAI differed by HIV status, as can be seen best in Table 5 Table 5 shows the association of online dating using three distinct reference groups, one for each HIV status. Backpage Escorts Near Me Island Beach Manitoba. Among HIV positive guys, UAI was more common in online when compared with offline ventures (OR = 1.61 95 % CI 1.03-2.50). Among HIV-negative guys no association was evident between UAI and on-line partnerships (OR = 1.07 95 % CI 0.71-1.62). Ipswich backpage escorts. Among HIV-unaware guys, UAI was more common in online compared to offline partnerships, though not statistically significant (OR = 1.65 95 % CI 0.79-3.44).
In multivariate model 3 (Tables 4 and 5 ), additionally including variants concerning sexual behaviour in the partnership (sex-associated multiple drug use, sex frequency and partner kind), the separate effect of online dating location on UAI became somewhat stronger (though not critical) for the HIV-positive guys (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI; 0.96-2.72), but remained similar for HIV negative men (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48). The result of online dating on UAI became stronger (and important) for HIV-unaware men (aOR = 2.55 95 % CI 1.11-5.86) (Table 5 ).
The number of sex partners in the preceding 6months of the index was likewise correlated with UAI (OR = 6.79 95 % CI 2.86-16.13 for those with 50 or more recent sex partners compared to those with fewer than 5 recent sex partners). UAI was significantly more likely if more sex acts had occurred in the partnership (OR = 16.29 95 % CI 7.07-37.52 for >10 sex acts within the partnership compared to only one sex act). Other variables significantly associated with UAI were group sex within the venture, and sex-connected multiple drug use within venture.
In this large study among MSM attending the STI clinic in Amsterdam, we found no signs that online dating was independently related to a higher risk of UAI than offline dating. For HIV negative guys this lack of assocation was clear (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48); among HIV positive men there was a nonsignificant association between online dating and UAI (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI 0.96-2.72). Just among men who indicated they weren't conscious of their HIV status (a small group in this study), UAI was more common with online than offline associates.
Among HIV-positive guys, in univariate analysis UAI was reported significantly more often with online associates than with offline partners. When adjusting for associate characteristics, the effect of online/offline dating on UAI among HIV-positive MSM became somewhat smaller and became non-significant; this suggests that differences in partnership factors between online and offline partnerships are responsible for the increased UAI in online established ventures. This could be due to a mediating effect of more information on partners, (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, or to other variables. Among HIV-negative men no effect of online dating on UAI was detected, either in univariate or in any of the multivariate models. Among HIV-oblivious guys, online dating was associated with UAI but only critical when adding associate and venture variables to the model.
A vital strength of the study was that it explored the relation between online dating and UAI among MSM who had recent sexual contact with both online and offline casual partners. This avoided bias due to potential differences between guys only dating online and those simply dating offline, a weakness of numerous previous studies. Backpage Escorts Near Me Inwood Manitoba. Backpage escorts nearest Manitoba, Canada. By recruiting participants at the greatest STI outpatient clinic in the Netherlands we could contain a high number of MSM, and avoid potential differences in men tried through Internet or face-to-face interviewing, weaknesses in a few previous studies 3 , 11