Five hundred seventy-seven guys (351 HIV-negative, 153 HIV positive, and 73 HIV-unaware) reported UAI in 26% of 878 online, and 23% of 903 offline casual partnerships. The crude OR of online dating for UAI was 1.36 (95 % CI 1.03-1.81). Backpage Escorts near Inwood. HIV-positive men were more likely to report UAI than HIV-negative men (49% vs. 28% of ventures). Fixed for demographic characteristics, online dating had no significant effect on UAI among HIV negative and HIV status-unaware men, but HIV positive men were more likely to have UAI with on-line partners (aOR = 1.65 95 % CI 1.05-2.57). After correction for associate and partnership characteristics the effect of online/offline dating on UAI among HIV-positive MSM was reduced and no longer critical.
Men who have sex with men (MSM) frequently use the Internet to discover sex partners. Several studies have revealed that MSM are more prone to engage in unprotected anal intercourse with sex partners they meet through the Internet (on-line) than with partners they meet at social sites (offline) 1 - 3 This suggests that men who acquire partners online may be at a higher risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV 4 - 6 Although higher rates of UAI are reported with internet partners, the risk of HIV transmission also depends upon accurate knowledge of one's own and the sex partners' HIV status 7 - 10
A meta-evaluation in 2006 found limited evidence that getting a sex partner online increases the danger of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) 3 Many previous studies compared men with internet partners to guys with offline partners. Nevertheless, men favoring online dating might differ in various unmeasured regards from guys preferring offline dating, leading to incomparable behavioural profiles. A more recent meta-analysis contained several studies analyzing MSM with both online and offline acquired sex partners and found evidence for an association between UAI and on-line partners, which may suggest a mediating effect of more info on partners, (including perceived HIV status) on UAI 13
With increased acquaintance in sexual partnerships, for example by concordant ethnicity, age, lifestyle, HIV status, and increasing sex frequency, the likelihood for UAI increase as well 14 - 16 We compared the occurrence of UAI in online acquired casual partnerships to that in offline got casual partnerships among MSM who reported both online and offline casual partners in the preceding six months. We hypothesised that MSM who date sex partners both online and offline, report more UAI with the casual partners they date on the internet, and that this effect is partially clarified through better knowledge of partner features, including HIV status.
We used data from a cross sectional study focusing on spread of STI via sexual networks 15 Between July 2008 and August 2009 MSM were recruited from the STI outpatient clinic of the Public Health Service of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Men were eligible for participation if they reported sexual contact with men during the six months preceding the STI consultation, they were at least 18years old, and may understand written Dutch or English. People could participate more than once, if subsequent visits to the practice were related to a potential new STI episode. Participants were regularly screened for STI/HIV according to the standard procedures of the STI outpatient clinic 15 , 17 The study was accepted by the medical ethics committee of the Academic Medical Center of Amsterdam (MEC 07/181), and written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Included in this evaluation were men who reported sexual contact with at least one casual partner dated online as well one casual partner dated offline.
Participants completed a standardised anonymous questionnaire during their trip to the STI outpatient clinic while waiting for preliminary evaluation results after their consultation using a nurse or doctor. The questionnaire elicited information on socio-demographics and HIV status of the participant, the three most recent partners in the preceding six months, and data on sexual behaviour with those partners. A thorough description of the study design as well as the questionnaire is provided elsewhere 15 , 18 Our chief determinant of interest, dating location (e.g., the name of a pub, park, club, or the name of a website) was obtained for every partner, and categorised into online (websites), and offline (physical sites) dating locations. To simplify the language of recognizing the partners per dating place, we refer to them as online or offline partners.
HIV status of the participant was got by asking the question 'Do you know whether you are HIV infected?', with five response choices: (1) I am certainly not HIV-infected; (2) I think that I am not HIV-contaminated; (3) I do not know; (4) I think I may be HIV-infected; (5) I know for sure that I 'm HIV-infected. We categorised this into HIV-negative (1,2), unknown (3), and HIV-positive (4,5) status. The survey enquired about the HIV status of every sex partner together with the question: 'Do you know whether this partner is HIV-infected?' with similar answer choices as previously. Perceived concordance in HIV status within partnerships was categorised as; (1) concordant; (2) discordant; (3) unknown. The last category represents all partnerships where the participant did not know his own status, or the status of his partner, or both. In this study the HIV status of the participant is self-reported and self-perceived. The HIV status of the sexual partner is as perceived by the participant.
As a way to investigate potential disclosure of HIV status we additionally asked the participant whether the casual sex partner knew the HIV status of the participant, together with the reply choices: (1) no, (2) potentially, (3) yes. Backpage Escorts near Inwood, Manitoba. Sexual conduct with each partner was dichotomised as: (1) no anal intercourse or merely shielded anal intercourse, and (2) unprotected anal intercourse. To ascertain the subculture, we asked whether the participant characterised himself or his partners as belonging to one or more of the following subcultures/lifestyles: casual, formal, alternative, drag, leather, military, sports, fashionable, punk/skinhead, rubber/lycra, gothic, bear, jeans, skater, or, if none of these characteristics were related, other. Concordant lifestyle was categorised as: (1) concordant; (2) discordant. Casual partner type was categorised by the participants into (1) known traceable and (2) anonymous partners.
We compared characteristics of participants by self-reported HIV status (using 2-evaluations for dichotomous and categorical variables and using rank sum test for continuous variables). We compared characteristics of participants, partners, and partnership sexual behaviour by on-line or offline venture, and computed P values based on logistic regression with robust standard errors, accounting for related data. Continuous variables (i.e., age, number of sex partners) are reported as medians with an interquartile range (IQR), and were categorised for inclusion in multivariate models. Random effects logistic regression models were used to examine the association between dating place (online versus offline) and UAI. Odds ratio tests were used to gauge the significance of a variable in a model.
Before the evaluations we developed a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representing a causal model of UAI. In this model some variants were putative causes (self-reported HIV status; on-line partner acquisition), others were considered as confounders (participants' age, participants' ethnicity, and no. Backpage escorts closest to Inwood, Canada. Backpage Escorts Near Me Ipswich Manitoba. Backpage Escorts Near Me Inglis Manitoba. of male sex partners in preceding 6months), and some were presumed to be on the causal pathway between the main exposure of interest and outcome (age difference between participant and partner; ethnic concordance; concordance in life styles; HIV concordance; partnership type; sex frequency within venture; group sex with partner; sex-associated material use in venture).