Five hundred seventy-seven men (351 HIV negative, 153 HIV-positive, and 73 HIV-unaware) reported UAI in 26% of 878 online, and 23% of 903 offline casual partnerships. The crude OR of online dating for UAI was 1.36 (95 % CI 1.03-1.81). Backpage Escorts nearby Channing. HIV-positive men were more likely to report UAI than HIV-negative men (49% vs. 28% of ventures). Fixed for demographic characteristics, online dating had no major effect on UAI among HIV-negative and HIV status-oblivious men, but HIV-positive men were more likely to have UAI with on-line partners (aOR = 1.65 95 % CI 1.05-2.57). After correction for partner and partnership characteristics the effect of online/offline dating on UAI among HIV positive MSM was reduced and no longer essential.
Men who have sex with men (MSM) frequently use the Web to locate sex partners. Several studies have shown that MSM are more likely to engage in unprotected anal intercourse with sex partners they meet through the Internet (on-line) than with partners they meet at social sites (offline) 1 - 3 This indicates that guys who get partners online may be at a higher risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV 4 - 6 Although higher rates of UAI are reported with on-line partners, the danger of HIV transmission also depends on accurate knowledge of one's own and the sex partners' HIV status 7 - 10
A meta-analysis in 2006 found limited evidence that getting a sex partner online increases the danger of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) 3 Many previous studies compared men with internet partners to men with offline partners. Nevertheless, guys preferring online dating might differ in several unmeasured respects from guys favoring offline dating, causing incomparable behavioural profiles. A more recent meta-analysis contained several studies examining MSM with both online and offline acquired sex partners and found evidence for an association between UAI and on-line partners, which might indicate a mediating effect of more information on partners, (including perceived HIV status) on UAI 13
With increased acquaintance in sexual partnerships, for example by concordant ethnicity, age, lifestyle, HIV status, and increasing sex frequency, the odds for UAI increase as well 14 - 16 We compared the incidence of UAI in online got casual partnerships to that in offline got casual partnerships among MSM who reported both on-line and offline casual partners in the preceding six months. We hypothesised that MSM who date sex partners both online and offline, report more UAI with the casual partners they date on the internet, and that this effect is partly explained through better knowledge of partner characteristics, including HIV status.
We used data from a cross sectional study focusing on spread of STI via sexual networks 15 Between July 2008 and August 2009 MSM were recruited from the STI outpatient clinic of the Public Health Service of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Men were eligible for participation if they reported sexual contact with men during the six months preceding the STI consultation, they were at least 18years old, and may understand written Dutch or English. People could participate more than once, if subsequent visits to the practice were related to a possible new STI episode. Participants were routinely screened for STI/HIV according to the standard procedures of the STI outpatient clinic 15 , 17 The study was approved by the medical ethics committee of the Academic Medical Center of Amsterdam (MEC 07/181), and written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Contained in this analysis were guys who reported sexual contact with at least one casual partner dated online as well one casual partner dated offline.
Participants completed a standardised anonymous questionnaire throughout their visit to the STI outpatient clinic while waiting for preliminary evaluation results after their consultation with a nurse or doctor. The questionnaire elicited information on socio-demographics and HIV status of the participant, the three most recent partners in the preceding six months, and information on sexual behaviour with those partners. A comprehensive description of the study design as well as the questionnaire is supplied elsewhere 15 , 18 Our main determinant of interest, dating place (e.g., the name of a pub, park, club, or the name of a site) was obtained for every partner, and categorised into on-line (websites), and offline (physical sites) dating locations. To simplify the terminology of distinguishing the partners per dating place, we refer to them as on-line or offline partners.
HIV status of the participant was obtained by asking the question 'Do you understand whether you're HIV infected?', with five response alternatives: (1) I 'm certainly not HIV-infected; (2) I believe that I am not HIV-contaminated; (3) I do not understand; (4) I believe I may be HIV-infected; (5) I know for sure that I 'm HIV-infected. We categorised this into HIV-negative (1,2), unknown (3), and HIV-positive (4,5) status. The questionnaire enquired about the HIV status of every sex partner with all the question: 'Do you understand whether this partner is HIV-contaminated?' with similar answer alternatives as previously. Perceived concordance in HIV status within ventures was categorised as; (1) concordant; (2) discordant; (3) unknown. The last class represents all partnerships where the participant didn't understand his own status, or the status of his partner, or both. In this study the HIV status of the participant is self-reported and self-perceived. The HIV status of the sexual partner is as perceived by the participant.
In order to investigate possible disclosure of HIV status we additionally asked the participant whether the casual sex partner understood the HIV status of the participant, with the reply options: (1) no, (2) potentially, (3) yes. Backpage escorts near Channing Manitoba. Sexual behavior with each partner was dichotomised as: (1) no anal intercourse or just protected anal intercourse, and (2) unprotected anal intercourse. To discover the subculture, we asked whether the participant characterised himself or his partners as belonging to one or more of the following subcultures/lifestyles: casual, formal, alternative, drag, leather, military, sports, trendy, punk/skinhead, rubber/lycra, gothic, bear, jeans, skater, or, if none of these features were appropriate, other. Concordant lifestyle was categorised as: (1) concordant; (2) discordant. Casual partner sort was categorised by the participants into (1) known traceable and (2) anonymous partners.
We compared characteristics of participants by self-reported HIV status (using 2-evaluations for dichotomous and categorical variables and using rank sum test for continuous variables). We compared characteristics of participants, partners, and partnership sexual conduct by on-line or offline venture, and calculated P values predicated on logistic regression with robust standard errors, accounting for related data. Continuous variables (i.e., age, number of sex partners) are reported as medians with an interquartile range (IQR), and were categorised for inclusion in multivariate models. Random effects logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between dating location (online versus offline) and UAI. Likelihood ratio tests were used to gauge the significance of a variable in a model.
Prior to the analyses we developed a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representing a causal model of UAI. In this model some variants were putative causes (self-reported HIV status; on-line partner acquisition), others were considered as confounders (participants' age, participants' ethnicity, and no. Backpage Escorts near Channing, Canada. Backpage Escorts Near Me Chatfield Manitoba. Backpage Escorts Near Me Chalet Beach Manitoba. of male sex partners in preceding 6months), and some were presumed to be on the causal pathway between the primary exposure of interest and results (age difference between participant and partner; ethnic concordance; concordance in life styles; HIV concordance; partnership kind; sex frequency within venture; group sex with partner; sex-associated substance use in partnership).