To be able to examine the possible mediating effect of more information on partners (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, we developed three variant models. In model 1, we adjusted the organization between online/offline dating location and UAI for features of the participant: age, ethnicity, number of sex partners in the preceding 6months, and self-perceived HIV status. In model 2 we added the venture features (age difference, ethnic concordance, lifestyle concordance, and HIV concordance). In model 3, we adjusted additionally for venture sexual risk behavior (i.e., sex-related drug use and sex frequency) and partnership sort (i.e., casual or anonymous). As we assumed a differential effect of dating location for HIV-positive, HIV negative and HIV status unknown MSM, an interaction between HIV status of the participant and dating location was included in all three models by making a fresh six-category variable. For clarity, the effects of online/offline dating on UAI are also presented separately for HIV negative, HIV-positive, and HIV-unaware guys. We performed a sensitivity analysis restricted to partnerships in which only one sexual contact occurred. Statistical significance was defined as P 0.05. No adjustments for multiple comparisons were made, in order not to miss potentially significant associations. Backpage Escorts nearby Tipella. As a fairly big number of statistical tests were done and reported, this strategy does lead to a higher risk of one or more false-positive associations. Analyses were done utilizing the statistical programme STATA, version 13 (STATA Intercooled, College Station, TX, USA).
Features of online and offline partners and ventures are revealed in Table 2 The median age of the partners was 34years (IQR 28-40). Compared to offline partners, more on-line partners were Dutch (61.3% vs. 54.0%; P 0.001) and were defined as a known partner (77.7% vs. 54.4%; P 0.001). The HIV status of online partners was more often reported as understood (61.4% vs. 49.4%; P 0.001), and in on-line partnerships, perceived HIV concordance was higher (49.0% vs. 39.8%; P 0.001). Participants reported that their on-line partners more frequently knew the HIV status of the participant than offline partners (38.8% vs. 27.2%; P 0.001). Participants more often reported multiple sexual contacts with internet partners (50.9% vs. 41.3%; P 0.001). Sex-associated material use, alcohol use, and group sex were less frequently reported with on-line partners.
In univariate analysis, UAI was significantly more prone to occur in on-line than in offline ventures (OR = 1.36 95 % CI 1.03-1.81) (Table 4 ). The self-perceived HIV status of the participant was strongly associated with UAI (OR = 11.70 95 % CI 7.40-18.45). The effect of dating place on UAI differed by HIV status, as can be seen best in Table 5 Table 5 shows the organization of online dating using three distinct reference categories, one for each HIV status. Backpage Escorts Near Me Tlell British Columbia. Among HIV positive guys, UAI was more common in online when compared with offline ventures (OR = 1.61 95 % CI 1.03-2.50). Among HIV-negative men no association was evident between UAI and internet ventures (OR = 1.07 95 % CI 0.71-1.62). Tipella Backpage Escorts. Among HIV-unaware men, UAI was more common in online compared to offline ventures, though not statistically significant (OR = 1.65 95 % CI 0.79-3.44).
In multivariate model 3 (Tables 4 and 5 ), also including variables concerning sexual behavior in the partnership (sex-related multiple drug use, sex frequency and partner kind), the independent effect of online dating place on UAI became somewhat stronger (though not significant) for the HIV-positive guys (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI; 0.96-2.72), but remained similar for HIV-negative guys (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48). The result of online dating on UAI became more powerful (and significant) for HIV-oblivious guys (aOR = 2.55 95 % CI 1.11-5.86) (Table 5 ).
The number of sex partners in the preceding 6months of the index was likewise correlated with UAI (OR = 6.79 95 % CI 2.86-16.13 for those with 50 or more recent sex partners compared to those with fewer than 5 recent sex partners). UAI was significantly more likely if more sex acts had occurred in the partnership (OR = 16.29 95 % CI 7.07-37.52 for >10 sex acts within the venture compared to only one sex act). Other variables significantly associated with UAI were group sex within the partnership, and sex-connected multiple drug use within venture.
In this large study among MSM attending the STI clinic in Amsterdam, we found no signs that online dating was independently related to a higher danger of UAI than offline dating. For HIV-negative men this dearth of assocation was clear (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48); among HIV positive men there was a non significant association between online dating and UAI (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI 0.96-2.72). Only among guys who indicated they were not aware of their HIV status (a small group in this study), UAI was more common with on-line than offline associates.
Among HIV positive men, in univariate analysis UAI was reported significantly more frequently with on-line partners than with offline associates. When correcting for partner features, the effect of online/offline dating on UAI among HIV-positive MSM became somewhat smaller and became non significant; this implies that differences in partnership variables between online and offline partnerships are liable for the increased UAI in online established partnerships. This might be due to a mediating effect of more info on associates, (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, or to other factors. Among HIV-negative men no effect of online dating on UAI was observed, either in univariate or in some of the multivariate models. Among HIV-unaware men, online dating was associated with UAI but just significant when adding partner and partnership variants to the model.
A vital strength of this study was that it investigated the relation between online dating and UAI among MSM who had recent sexual contact with both online and offline casual partners. This prevented bias due to potential differences between men just dating online and those just dating offline, a weakness of several previous studies. Backpage Escorts Near Me Tiilis Landing British Columbia. Backpage escorts in British Columbia, Canada. By recruiting participants at the biggest STI outpatient clinic in the Netherlands we could comprise a great number of MSM, and prevent potential differences in men tried through Internet or face to face interviewing, weaknesses in some previous studies 3 , 11