In order to analyze the potential mediating effect of more information on partners (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, we developed three multivariable models. In version 1, we adapted the organization between online/offline dating place and UAI for features of the participant: age, ethnicity, number of sex partners in the preceding 6months, and self-perceived HIV status. In model 2 we added the partnership features (age difference, ethnic concordance, lifestyle concordance, and HIV concordance). In version 3, we adapted also for venture sexual risk behavior (i.e., sex-related drug use and sex frequency) and venture sort (i.e., casual or anonymous). As we assumed a differential effect of dating location for HIV-positive, HIV-negative and HIV status unknown MSM, an interaction between HIV status of the participant and dating place was included in all three models by making a new six-category variable. For clarity, the effects of online/offline dating on UAI are also presented separately for HIV negative, HIV-positive, and HIV-oblivious guys. We performed a sensitivity analysis limited to partnerships in which just one sexual contact occurred. Statistical significance was defined as P 0.05. No adjustments for multiple comparisons were made, in order not to miss potentially significant organizations. Backpage Escorts near Premier Lake. As a fairly big number of statistical tests were done and reported, this approach does lead to a heightened risk of one or more false-positive associations. Investigations were done using the statistical programme STATA, version 13 (STATA Intercooled, College Station, TX, USA).
Characteristics of online and offline partners and partnerships are revealed in Table 2 The median age of the partners was 34years (IQR 28-40). Compared to offline partners, more on-line partners were Dutch (61.3% vs. 54.0%; P 0.001) and were defined as a known partner (77.7% vs. 54.4%; P 0.001). The HIV status of on-line partners was more frequently reported as known (61.4% vs. 49.4%; P 0.001), and in online partnerships, perceived HIV concordance was higher (49.0% vs. 39.8%; P 0.001). Participants reported that their online partners more often understood the HIV status of the participant than offline partners (38.8% vs. 27.2%; P 0.001). Participants more often reported multiple sexual contacts with internet partners (50.9% vs. 41.3%; P 0.001). Sex-related material use, alcohol use, and group sex were less often reported with online partners.
In univariate analysis, UAI was significantly more inclined to occur in on-line than in offline ventures (OR = 1.36 95 % CI 1.03-1.81) (Table 4 ). The self-perceived HIV status of the participant was firmly connected with UAI (OR = 11.70 95 % CI 7.40-18.45). The result of dating place on UAI differed by HIV status, as can be seen best in Table 5 Table 5 shows the organization of online dating using three different reference types, one for each HIV status. Backpage Escorts Near Me Prince George British Columbia. Among HIV positive men, UAI was more common in online in comparison to offline partnerships (OR = 1.61 95 % CI 1.03-2.50). Among HIV negative men no association was apparent between UAI and internet ventures (OR = 1.07 95 % CI 0.71-1.62). Premier Lake Backpage Escorts. Among HIV-unaware guys, UAI was more common in online when compared with offline ventures, though not statistically significant (OR = 1.65 95 % CI 0.79-3.44).
In multivariate model 3 (Tables 4 and 5 ), also including variants concerning sexual behavior in the partnership (sex-associated multiple drug use, sex frequency and partner type), the separate effect of online dating location on UAI became somewhat stronger (though not critical) for the HIV-positive men (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI; 0.96-2.72), but remained similar for HIV negative men (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48). The effect of online dating on UAI became more powerful (and important) for HIV-unaware men (aOR = 2.55 95 % CI 1.11-5.86) (Table 5 ).
The amount of sex partners in the preceding 6months of the index was likewise associated with UAI (OR = 6.79 95 % CI 2.86-16.13 for those with 50 or more recent sex partners compared to those with fewer than 5 recent sex partners). UAI was significantly more likely if more sex acts had occurred in the partnership (OR = 16.29 95 % CI 7.07-37.52 for >10 sex acts within the partnership compared to just one sex act). Other factors significantly associated with UAI were group sex within the venture, and sex-related multiple drug use within venture.
In this large study among MSM attending the STI clinic in Amsterdam, we found no evidence that online dating was independently related to a higher danger of UAI than offline dating. For HIV-negative men this lack of assocation was clear (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48); among HIV-positive men there was a non-significant association between online dating and UAI (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI 0.96-2.72). Simply among men who indicated they were not conscious of their HIV status (a small group in this study), UAI was more common with on-line than offline partners.
Among HIV positive guys, in univariate analysis UAI was reported significantly more frequently with online partners than with offline partners. When adjusting for partner characteristics, the effect of online/offline dating on UAI among HIV positive MSM became somewhat smaller and became non-significant; this implies that differences in partnership variables between online and offline partnerships are accountable for the increased UAI in online established ventures. This might be due to a mediating effect of more info on associates, (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, or to other variables. Among HIV negative men no effect of online dating on UAI was observed, either in univariate or in the multivariate models. Among HIV-oblivious men, online dating was associated with UAI but only critical when adding associate and venture variables to the model.
An integral strength of the study was that it explored the relationship between online dating and UAI among MSM who had recent sexual contact with both online and also offline casual partners. This prevented prejudice caused by potential differences between guys just dating online and those simply dating offline, a weakness of several previous studies. Backpage Escorts Near Me Premier British Columbia. Backpage escorts nearest British Columbia, Canada. By recruiting participants at the largest STI outpatient clinic in the Netherlands we could comprise a great number of MSM, and avoid potential differences in men tried through Internet or face-to-face interviewing, weaknesses in certain previous studies 3 , 11