To be able to analyze the possible mediating effect of more information on partners (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, we developed three variant models. In model 1, we adjusted the association between online/offline dating location and UAI for features of the participant: age, ethnicity, number of sex partners in the preceding 6months, and self-perceived HIV status. In model 2 we added the partnership features (age difference, ethnic concordance, lifestyle concordance, and HIV concordance). In model 3, we adapted also for venture sexual risk behaviour (i.e., sex-associated drug use and sex frequency) and partnership kind (i.e., casual or anonymous). As we assumed a differential effect of dating location for HIV positive, HIV negative and HIV status unknown MSM, an interaction between HIV status of the participant and dating location was included in all three models by making a brand new six-category variable. For clarity, the effects of online/offline dating on UAI are also presented individually for HIV-negative, HIV positive, and HIV-oblivious guys. We performed a sensitivity analysis restricted to partnerships in which just one sexual contact occurred. Statistical significance was defined as P 0.05. No adjustments for multiple comparisons were made, in order not to lose potentially significant associations. Backpage Escorts closest to Lempriere. As a fairly big number of statistical tests were done and reported, this approach does lead to a heightened danger of one or more false positive organizations. Evaluations were done using the statistical programme STATA, version 13 (STATA Intercooled, College Station, TX, USA).
Characteristics of on-line and offline partners and partnerships are revealed in Table 2 The median age of the partners was 34years (IQR 28-40). Compared to offline partners, more online partners were Dutch (61.3% vs. 54.0%; P 0.001) and were defined as a known partner (77.7% vs. 54.4%; P 0.001). The HIV status of online partners was more frequently reported as known (61.4% vs. 49.4%; P 0.001), and in online ventures, perceived HIV concordance was higher (49.0% vs. 39.8%; P 0.001). Participants reported that their online partners more frequently understood the HIV status of the participant than offline partners (38.8% vs. 27.2%; P 0.001). Participants more often reported multiple sexual contacts with online partners (50.9% vs. 41.3%; P 0.001). Sex-related substance use, alcohol use, and group sex were less frequently reported with on-line partners.
In univariate analysis, UAI was significantly more inclined to occur in online than in offline partnerships (OR = 1.36 95 % CI 1.03-1.81) (Table 4 ). The self-perceived HIV status of the participant was strongly correlated with UAI (OR = 11.70 95 % CI 7.40-18.45). The impact of dating location on UAI differed by HIV status, as can be seen best in Table 5 Table 5 shows the organization of online dating using three distinct reference classes, one for each HIV status. Backpage Escorts Near Me Lexau Ranch British Columbia. Among HIV-positive guys, UAI was more common in online in comparison to offline ventures (OR = 1.61 95 % CI 1.03-2.50). Among HIV-negative men no association was apparent between UAI and online partnerships (OR = 1.07 95 % CI 0.71-1.62). Lempriere backpage escorts. Among HIV-unaware men, UAI was more common in online compared to offline partnerships, though not statistically significant (OR = 1.65 95 % CI 0.79-3.44).
In multivariate model 3 (Tables 4 and 5 ), additionally including variables concerning sexual behavior in the partnership (sex-associated multiple drug use, sex frequency and partner kind), the separate effect of online dating place on UAI became somewhat more powerful (though not significant) for the HIV-positive guys (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI; 0.96-2.72), but remained similar for HIV-negative guys (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48). The effect of online dating on UAI became more powerful (and important) for HIV-unaware men (aOR = 2.55 95 % CI 1.11-5.86) (Table 5 ).
The amount of sex partners in the preceding 6months of the index was also correlated with UAI (OR = 6.79 95 % CI 2.86-16.13 for those with 50 or more recent sex partners compared to those with fewer than 5 recent sex partners). UAI was significantly more likely if more sex acts had happened in the partnership (OR = 16.29 95 % CI 7.07-37.52 for >10 sex acts within the venture compared to only one sex act). Other variables significantly associated with UAI were group sex within the venture, and sex-connected multiple drug use within venture.
In this large study among MSM attending the STI clinic in Amsterdam, we found no signs that online dating was independently related to a higher risk of UAI than offline dating. For HIV-negative men this dearth of assocation was clear (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48); among HIV-positive guys there was a nonsignificant association between online dating and UAI (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI 0.96-2.72). Only among men who indicated they weren't informed of their HIV status (a small group in this study), UAI was more common with on-line than offline partners.
Among HIV-positive guys, in univariate analysis UAI was reported significantly more frequently with online associates than with offline associates. When correcting for associate characteristics, the effect of online/offline dating on UAI among HIV-positive MSM became somewhat smaller and became non significant; this suggests that differences in partnership variables between online and also offline partnerships are in charge of the increased UAI in online established ventures. This could be because of a mediating effect of more information on partners, (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, or to other factors. Among HIV-negative men no effect of online dating on UAI was observed, either in univariate or in any of the multivariate models. Among HIV-unaware guys, online dating was associated with UAI but only significant when adding associate and venture variables to the model.
An integral strength of the study was that it explored the relation between online dating and UAI among MSM who had recent sexual contact with both online and also offline casual partners. This avoided bias caused by potential differences between guys only dating online and those only dating offline, a weakness of several previous studies. Backpage Escorts Near Me Lemoray British Columbia. Backpage escorts near British Columbia Canada. By recruiting participants at the largest STI outpatient clinic in the Netherlands we could include a great number of MSM, and prevent potential differences in guys tried through Internet or face to face interviewing, weaknesses in certain previous studies 3 , 11