To be able to examine the potential mediating effect of more info on partners (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, we developed three multivariable models. In version 1, we adapted the organization between online/offline dating place and UAI for characteristics of the participant: age, ethnicity, number of sex partners in the preceding 6months, and self-perceived HIV status. In model 2 we added the partnership features (age difference, ethnic concordance, lifestyle concordance, and HIV concordance). In model 3, we adapted additionally for venture sexual risk behavior (i.e., sex-related drug use and sex frequency) and partnership type (i.e., casual or anonymous). As we assumed a differential effect of dating location for HIV positive, HIV-negative and HIV status unknown MSM, an interaction between HIV status of the participant and dating place was contained in all three models by making a brand new six-class variable. For clarity, the effects of online/offline dating on UAI are also presented individually for HIV negative, HIV positive, and HIV-oblivious men. We performed a sensitivity analysis confined to partnerships in which just one sexual contact occurred. Statistical significance was defined as P 0.05. No adjustments for multiple comparisons were made, in order not to lose potentially significant organizations. Backpage escorts in Extension. As a rather large number of statistical tests were done and reported, this strategy does lead to an increased danger of one or more false-positive organizations. Evaluations were done utilizing the statistical programme STATA, version 13 (STATA Intercooled, College Station, TX, USA).
Features of on-line and offline partners and ventures are shown in Table 2 The median age of the partners was 34years (IQR 28-40). Compared to offline partners, more online partners were Dutch (61.3% vs. 54.0%; P 0.001) and were defined as a known partner (77.7% vs. 54.4%; P 0.001). The HIV status of online partners was more frequently reported as understood (61.4% vs. 49.4%; P 0.001), and in on-line partnerships, perceived HIV concordance was higher (49.0% vs. 39.8%; P 0.001). Participants reported that their on-line partners more often knew the HIV status of the participant than offline partners (38.8% vs. 27.2%; P 0.001). Participants more frequently reported multiple sexual contacts with internet partners (50.9% vs. 41.3%; P 0.001). Sex-related material use, alcohol use, and group sex were less frequently reported with on-line partners.
In univariate analysis, UAI was significantly more inclined to happen in online than in offline partnerships (OR = 1.36 95 % CI 1.03-1.81) (Table 4 ). The self-perceived HIV status of the participant was strongly associated with UAI (OR = 11.70 95 % CI 7.40-18.45). The impact of dating place on UAI differed by HIV status, as can be seen best in Table 5 Table 5 shows the association of online dating using three distinct reference types, one for each HIV status. Backpage Escorts Near Me Fair Harbour British Columbia. Among HIV-positive guys, UAI was more common in online compared to offline partnerships (OR = 1.61 95 % CI 1.03-2.50). Among HIV-negative guys no association was apparent between UAI and internet ventures (OR = 1.07 95 % CI 0.71-1.62). Extension Backpage Escorts. Among HIV-oblivious men, UAI was more common in online compared to offline ventures, though not statistically significant (OR = 1.65 95 % CI 0.79-3.44).
In multivariate model 3 (Tables 4 and 5 ), additionally including variants concerning sexual behaviour in the venture (sex-related multiple drug use, sex frequency and partner type), the independent effect of online dating place on UAI became somewhat stronger (though not critical) for the HIV positive men (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI; 0.96-2.72), but remained similar for HIV negative men (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48). The result of online dating on UAI became more powerful (and essential) for HIV-unaware men (aOR = 2.55 95 % CI 1.11-5.86) (Table 5 ).
The amount of sex partners in the preceding 6months of the index was also correlated with UAI (OR = 6.79 95 % CI 2.86-16.13 for those with 50 or more recent sex partners compared to those with fewer than 5 recent sex partners). UAI was significantly more likely if more sex acts had occurred in the venture (OR = 16.29 95 % CI 7.07-37.52 for >10 sex acts within the partnership compared to only one sex act). Other factors significantly associated with UAI were group sex within the partnership, and sex-related multiple drug use within venture.
In this large study among MSM attending the STI clinic in Amsterdam, we found no evidence that online dating was independently related to a higher risk of UAI than offline dating. For HIV negative guys this lack of assocation was clear (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48); among HIV positive guys there was a non significant association between online dating and UAI (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI 0.96-2.72). Simply among men who suggested they were not informed of their HIV status (a little group in this study), UAI was more common with on-line than offline associates.
Among HIV positive guys, in univariate analysis UAI was reported significantly more often with online associates than with offline partners. When adjusting for partner characteristics, the effect of online/offline dating on UAI among HIV-positive MSM became somewhat smaller and became nonsignificant; this implies that differences in partnership variables between online and offline partnerships are responsible for the increased UAI in online established partnerships. This may be due to a mediating effect of more info on partners, (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, or to other factors. Among HIV-negative guys no effect of online dating on UAI was discovered, either in univariate or in the multivariate models. Among HIV-oblivious men, online dating was connected with UAI but only important when adding associate and venture variables to the model.
A vital strength of this study was that it investigated the relation between online dating and UAI among MSM who had recent sexual contact with both online and offline casual partners. This prevented bias caused by potential differences between men just dating online and those simply dating offline, a weakness of several previous studies. Backpage Escorts Near Me Exstew British Columbia. Backpage escorts near British Columbia, Canada. By recruiting participants at the largest STI outpatient clinic in the Netherlands we could include a great number of MSM, and avoid potential differences in men tried through Internet or face-to-face interviewing, weaknesses in certain previous studies 3 , 11