Five hundred seventy-seven men (351 HIV negative, 153 HIV-positive, and 73 HIV-oblivious) reported UAI in 26% of 878 online, and 23% of 903 offline casual partnerships. The crude OR of online dating for UAI was 1.36 (95 % CI 1.03-1.81). Backpage Escorts nearby Exstew. HIV-positive men were more likely to report UAI than HIV-negative men (49% vs. 28% of ventures). Adjusted for demographic characteristics, online dating had no important effect on UAI among HIV negative and HIV status-unaware guys, but HIV positive men were more likely to have UAI with online partners (aOR = 1.65 95 % CI 1.05-2.57). After correction for partner and partnership characteristics the effect of online/offline dating on UAI among HIV-positive MSM was reduced and no longer essential.
Men who have sex with men (MSM) frequently use the Internet to find sex partners. Several research have revealed that MSM are prone to participate in unprotected anal intercourse with sex partners they meet through the Internet (on-line) than with partners they meet at social places (offline) 1 - 3 This implies that guys who get partners online may be at a higher risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV 4 - 6 Although higher rates of UAI are reported with online partners, the danger of HIV transmission also depends upon accurate knowledge of one's own and the sex partners' HIV status 7 - 10
A meta-analysis in 2006 found limited evidence that acquiring a sex partner online increases the risk of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) 3 Many previous studies compared guys with internet partners to guys with offline partners. Yet, guys preferring online dating might differ in several unmeasured regards from men favoring offline dating, causing incomparable behavioural profiles. A more recent meta-analysis included several studies analyzing MSM with both online and offline acquired sex partners and found evidence for an association between UAI and internet partners, which may imply a mediating effect of more info on partners, (including perceived HIV status) on UAI 13
With increased acquaintance in sexual partnerships, for example by concordant ethnicity, age, lifestyle, HIV status, and increasing sex frequency, the odds for UAI increase as well 14 - 16 We compared the occurrence of UAI in online acquired casual partnerships to that in offline got casual partnerships among MSM who reported both online and offline casual partners in the preceding six months. We hypothesised that MSM who date sex partners both online and offline, report more UAI with the casual partners they date online, and that this effect is partly described through better understanding of partner features, including HIV status.
We used data from a cross-sectional study focusing on spread of STI via sexual networks 15 Between July 2008 and August 2009 MSM were recruited from the STI outpatient clinic of the Public Health Service of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Men were eligible for participation if they reported sexual contact with men during the six months preceding the STI consultation, they were at least 18years old, and might comprehend written Dutch or English. Individuals could participate more than once, if following visits to the clinic were related to a potential new STI episode. Participants were regularly screened for STI/HIV according to the standard procedures of the STI outpatient clinic 15 , 17 The study was approved by the medical ethics committee of the Academic Medical Center of Amsterdam (MEC 07/181), and written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Contained in this evaluation were guys who reported sexual contact with at least one casual partner dated online as well one casual partner dated offline.
Participants completed a standardised anonymous survey throughout their trip to the STI outpatient clinic while waiting for preliminary test results after their consultation with a nurse or doctor. The questionnaire elicited information on socio-demographics and HIV status of the participant, the three most recent partners in the preceding six months, and data on sexual behavior with those partners. A detailed description of the study design and also the survey is supplied elsewhere 15 , 18 Our primary determinant of interest, dating place (e.g., the name of a bar, park, club, or the name of a web site) was obtained for every partner, and categorised into on-line (websites), and offline (physical sites) dating locations. To simplify the language of recognizing the partners per dating place, we refer to them as online or offline partners.
HIV status of the participant was obtained by asking the question 'Do you understand whether you are HIV infected?', with five response options: (1) I 'm certainly not HIV-contaminated; (2) I think that I'm not HIV-contaminated; (3) I do not know; (4) I believe I may be HIV-contaminated; (5) I know for sure that I 'm HIV-infected. We categorised this into HIV-negative (1,2), unknown (3), and HIV positive (4,5) status. The questionnaire enquired about the HIV status of each sex partner together with the question: 'Do you know whether this partner is HIV-infected?' with similar reply options as above. Perceived concordance in HIV status within ventures was categorised as; (1) concordant; (2) discordant; (3) unknown. The final group represents all partnerships where the participant did not understand his own status, or the status of his partner, or both. In this study the HIV status of the participant is self-reported and self-perceived. The HIV status of the sexual partner is as perceived by the participant.
As a way to explore potential disclosure of HIV status we additionally asked the participant whether the casual sex partner understood the HIV status of the participant, together with the reply alternatives: (1) no, (2) possibly, (3) yes. Backpage escorts closest to Exstew British Columbia. Sexual behaviour with each partner was dichotomised as: (1) no anal intercourse or just protected anal intercourse, and (2) unprotected anal intercourse. To discover the subculture, we asked whether the participant characterised himself or his partners as belonging to one or more of the subsequent subcultures/lifestyles: casual, formal, alternative, drag, leather, military, sports, trendy, punk/skinhead, rubber/lycra, gothic, bear, jeans, skater, or, if not one of these features were related, other. Concordant lifestyle was categorised as: (1) concordant; (2) discordant. Accidental partner type was categorised by the participants into (1) known traceable and (2) anonymous partners.
We compared characteristics of participants by self-reported HIV status (using 2-tests for dichotomous and categorical variables and using rank sum test for continuous variables). We compared features of participants, partners, and venture sexual behavior by online or offline venture, and computed P values based on logistic regression with robust standard errors, accounting for correlated data. Continuous variables (i.e., age, amount of sex partners) are reported as medians with an interquartile range (IQR), and were categorised for inclusion in multivariate models. Random effects logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between dating place (online versus offline) and UAI. Likelihood ratio tests were used to assess the significance of a variable in a model.
Prior to the investigations we developed a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representing a causal model of UAI. In this model some variants were putative causes (self-reported HIV status; online partner acquisition), others were considered as confounders (participants' age, participants' ethnicity, and no. Backpage escorts nearest Exstew Canada. Backpage Escorts Near Me Extension British Columbia. Backpage Escorts Near Me Exlou British Columbia. of male sex partners in preceding 6months), and some were assumed to be on the causal pathway between the main exposure of interest and result (age difference between participant and partner; ethnic concordance; concordance in life styles; HIV concordance; partnership sort; sex frequency within venture; group sex with partner; sex-related substance use in partnership).