To be able to analyze the possible mediating effect of more information on partners (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, we developed three multivariable models. In model 1, we adjusted the organization between online/offline dating place and UAI for characteristics of the participant: age, ethnicity, number of sex partners in the preceding 6months, and self-perceived HIV status. In model 2 we added the partnership features (age difference, ethnic concordance, lifestyle concordance, and HIV concordance). In version 3, we adjusted additionally for venture sexual risk behaviour (i.e., sex-associated drug use and sex frequency) and venture type (i.e., casual or anonymous). As we assumed a differential effect of dating location for HIV positive, HIV negative and HIV status unknown MSM, an interaction between HIV status of the participant and dating location was contained in all three models by making a new six-class variable. For clarity, the effects of online/offline dating on UAI are also presented individually for HIV negative, HIV-positive, and HIV-oblivious guys. We performed a sensitivity analysis confined to partnerships in which only one sexual contact occurred. Statistical significance was defined as P 0.05. No adjustments for multiple comparisons were made, in order not to lose potentially important organizations. Backpage Escorts near me Blaeberry. As a rather big number of statistical evaluations were done and reported, this approach does lead to a higher risk of one or more false positive associations. Investigations were done utilizing the statistical programme STATA, version 13 (STATA Intercooled, College Station, TX, USA).
Features of online and offline partners and ventures are shown in Table 2 The median age of the partners was 34years (IQR 28-40). Compared to offline partners, more online partners were Dutch (61.3% vs. 54.0%; P 0.001) and were defined as a known partner (77.7% vs. 54.4%; P 0.001). The HIV status of online partners was more frequently reported as known (61.4% vs. 49.4%; P 0.001), and in on-line partnerships, perceived HIV concordance was higher (49.0% vs. 39.8%; P 0.001). Participants reported that their on-line partners more frequently knew the HIV status of the participant than offline partners (38.8% vs. 27.2%; P 0.001). Participants more frequently reported multiple sexual contacts with internet partners (50.9% vs. 41.3%; P 0.001). Sex-related substance use, alcohol use, and group sex were less often reported with on-line partners.
In univariate analysis, UAI was significantly more likely to occur in on-line than in offline partnerships (OR = 1.36 95 % CI 1.03-1.81) (Table 4 ). The self-perceived HIV status of the participant was strongly connected with UAI (OR = 11.70 95 % CI 7.40-18.45). The effect of dating place on UAI differed by HIV status, as can be seen best in Table 5 Table 5 shows the association of online dating using three different reference classes, one for each HIV status. Backpage Escorts Near Me Blind Bay British Columbia. Among HIV positive men, UAI was more common in online compared to offline ventures (OR = 1.61 95 % CI 1.03-2.50). Among HIV negative men no association was evident between UAI and online partnerships (OR = 1.07 95 % CI 0.71-1.62). Blaeberry Backpage Escorts. Among HIV-unaware guys, UAI was more common in online when compared with offline partnerships, though not statistically significant (OR = 1.65 95 % CI 0.79-3.44).
In multivariate model 3 (Tables 4 and 5 ), also including variables concerning sexual behaviour in the venture (sex-associated multiple drug use, sex frequency and partner type), the independent effect of online dating place on UAI became somewhat more powerful (though not significant) for the HIV-positive guys (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI; 0.96-2.72), but remained similar for HIV-negative guys (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48). The effect of online dating on UAI became stronger (and important) for HIV-oblivious guys (aOR = 2.55 95 % CI 1.11-5.86) (Table 5 ).
The number of sex partners in the preceding 6months of the index was also correlated with UAI (OR = 6.79 95 % CI 2.86-16.13 for those with 50 or more recent sex partners compared to those with fewer than 5 recent sex partners). UAI was significantly more likely if more sex acts had occurred in the venture (OR = 16.29 95 % CI 7.07-37.52 for >10 sex acts within the partnership compared to just one sex act). Other variables significantly associated with UAI were group sex within the venture, and sex-connected multiple drug use within partnership.
In this large study among MSM attending the STI clinic in Amsterdam, we found no signs that online dating was independently associated with a higher risk of UAI than offline dating. For HIV-negative men this dearth of assocation was clear (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48); among HIV-positive men there was a non significant association between online dating and UAI (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI 0.96-2.72). Just among men who indicated they were not conscious of their HIV status (a small group in this study), UAI was more common with online than offline partners.
Among HIV positive men, in univariate analysis UAI was reported significantly more often with on-line partners than with offline associates. When correcting for associate features, the effect of online/offline dating on UAI among HIV positive MSM became somewhat smaller and became non significant; this indicates that differences in partnership factors between online and also offline partnerships are accountable for the increased UAI in online established partnerships. This might be because of a mediating effect of more info on partners, (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, or to other factors. Among HIV negative guys no effect of online dating on UAI was found, either in univariate or in any of the multivariate models. Among HIV-oblivious men, online dating was associated with UAI but only significant when adding associate and partnership variants to the model.
A vital strength of the study was that it investigated the relationship between online dating and UAI among MSM who had recent sexual contact with both online and offline casual partners. This avoided prejudice due to potential differences between men just dating online and those only dating offline, a weakness of numerous previous studies. Backpage Escorts Near Me Blackwater British Columbia. Backpage Escorts nearby British Columbia, Canada. By recruiting participants at the biggest STI outpatient clinic in the Netherlands we could include a high number of MSM, and prevent potential differences in guys sampled through Internet or face-to-face interviewing, weaknesses in certain previous studies 3 , 11