To be able to analyze the potential mediating effect of more info on partners (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, we developed three variant models. In version 1, we adapted the association between online/offline dating place and UAI for characteristics of the participant: age, ethnicity, number of sex partners in the preceding 6months, and self-perceived HIV status. In model 2 we added the venture characteristics (age difference, ethnic concordance, lifestyle concordance, and HIV concordance). In version 3, we adapted additionally for partnership sexual risk behavior (i.e., sex-associated drug use and sex frequency) and partnership type (i.e., casual or anonymous). As we assumed a differential effect of dating place for HIV-positive, HIV negative and HIV status unknown MSM, an interaction between HIV status of the participant and dating place was included in all three models by making a brand new six-class variable. For clarity, the effects of online/offline dating on UAI are also presented individually for HIV negative, HIV positive, and HIV-unaware guys. We performed a sensitivity analysis confined to partnerships in which just one sexual contact occurred. Statistical significance was defined as P 0.05. No adjustments for multiple comparisons were made, in order not to miss potentially significant associations. Backpage escorts near Two Guns. As a fairly big number of statistical tests were done and reported, this strategy does lead to a heightened risk of one or more false positive organizations. Evaluations were done utilizing the statistical programme STATA, version 13 (STATA Intercooled, College Station, TX, USA).
Characteristics of on-line and offline partners and partnerships are revealed in Table 2 The median age of the partners was 34years (IQR 28-40). Compared to offline partners, more on-line partners were Dutch (61.3% vs. 54.0%; P 0.001) and were defined as a known partner (77.7% vs. 54.4%; P 0.001). The HIV status of online partners was more often reported as known (61.4% vs. 49.4%; P 0.001), and in on-line partnerships, perceived HIV concordance was higher (49.0% vs. 39.8%; P 0.001). Participants reported that their on-line partners more frequently understood the HIV status of the participant than offline partners (38.8% vs. 27.2%; P 0.001). Participants more often reported multiple sexual contacts with internet partners (50.9% vs. 41.3%; P 0.001). Sex-associated material use, alcohol use, and group sex were less often reported with internet partners.
In univariate analysis, UAI was significantly more inclined to happen in online than in offline ventures (OR = 1.36 95 % CI 1.03-1.81) (Table 4 ). The self-perceived HIV status of the participant was firmly correlated with UAI (OR = 11.70 95 % CI 7.40-18.45). The effect of dating location on UAI differed by HIV status, as can be seen best in Table 5 Table 5 shows the association of online dating using three distinct reference classes, one for each HIV status. Backpage Escorts Near Me Two Hills Alberta. Among HIV-positive men, UAI was more common in online in comparison to offline ventures (OR = 1.61 95 % CI 1.03-2.50). Among HIV-negative men no association was apparent between UAI and internet partnerships (OR = 1.07 95 % CI 0.71-1.62). Two Guns backpage escorts. Among HIV-oblivious guys, UAI was more common in online compared to offline partnerships, though not statistically significant (OR = 1.65 95 % CI 0.79-3.44).
In multivariate model 3 (Tables 4 and 5 ), additionally including variants concerning sexual behaviour in the venture (sex-associated multiple drug use, sex frequency and partner type), the independent effect of online dating location on UAI became somewhat stronger (though not essential) for the HIV-positive guys (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI; 0.96-2.72), but remained similar for HIV-negative guys (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48). The effect of online dating on UAI became more powerful (and critical) for HIV-oblivious men (aOR = 2.55 95 % CI 1.11-5.86) (Table 5 ).
The number of sex partners in the preceding 6months of the index was likewise connected with UAI (OR = 6.79 95 % CI 2.86-16.13 for those with 50 or more recent sex partners compared to those with fewer than 5 recent sex partners). UAI was significantly more likely if more sex acts had occurred in the partnership (OR = 16.29 95 % CI 7.07-37.52 for >10 sex acts within the partnership compared to only one sex act). Other variables significantly associated with UAI were group sex within the venture, and sex-related multiple drug use within venture.
In this large study among MSM attending the STI clinic in Amsterdam, we found no signs that online dating was independently associated with a higher risk of UAI than offline dating. For HIV-negative guys this lack of assocation was clear (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48); among HIV positive men there was a nonsignificant association between online dating and UAI (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI 0.96-2.72). Only among guys who indicated they were not conscious of their HIV status (a small group in this study), UAI was more common with on-line than offline partners.
Among HIV positive men, in univariate analysis UAI was reported significantly more frequently with online associates than with offline associates. When correcting for associate features, the effect of online/offline dating on UAI among HIV-positive MSM became somewhat smaller and became non significant; this indicates that differences in partnership variables between online and offline partnerships are accountable for the increased UAI in online established partnerships. This could be because of a mediating effect of more information on associates, (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, or to other factors. Among HIV-negative guys no effect of online dating on UAI was observed, either in univariate or in any of the multivariate models. Among HIV-oblivious guys, online dating was associated with UAI but only critical when adding associate and partnership variants to the model.
A vital strength of the study was that it investigated the connection between online dating and UAI among MSM who had recent sexual contact with both online and also offline casual partners. This avoided prejudice caused by potential differences between men only dating online and those just dating offline, a weakness of numerous previous studies. Backpage Escorts Near Me Two Creeks Alberta. Backpage Escorts nearby Alberta Canada. By recruiting participants at the greatest STI outpatient clinic in the Netherlands we could contain a high number of MSM, and avoid potential differences in guys sampled through Internet or face-to-face interviewing, weaknesses in a few previous studies 3 , 11