To be able to analyze the potential mediating effect of more information on partners (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, we developed three variant models. In version 1, we adjusted the association between online/offline dating location and UAI for features of the participant: age, ethnicity, number of sex partners in the preceding 6months, and self-perceived HIV status. In model 2 we added the venture features (age difference, ethnic concordance, lifestyle concordance, and HIV concordance). In version 3, we adjusted also for venture sexual risk behaviour (i.e., sex-related drug use and sex frequency) and partnership kind (i.e., casual or anonymous). As we assumed a differential effect of dating place for HIV-positive, HIV negative and HIV status unknown MSM, an interaction between HIV status of the participant and dating location was included in all three models by making a new six-category variable. For clarity, the effects of online/offline dating on UAI are also presented separately for HIV-negative, HIV-positive, and HIV-unaware men. We performed a sensitivity analysis confined to partnerships in which only one sexual contact occurred. Statistical significance was defined as P 0.05. No adjustments for multiple comparisons were made, in order not to lose potentially important associations. Backpage Escorts near Musidora. As a rather big number of statistical evaluations were done and reported, this strategy does lead to a higher risk of one or more false positive associations. Evaluations were done using the statistical programme STATA, version 13 (STATA Intercooled, College Station, TX, USA).
Characteristics of on-line and offline partners and partnerships are revealed in Table 2 The median age of the partners was 34years (IQR 28-40). Compared to offline partners, more online partners were Dutch (61.3% vs. 54.0%; P 0.001) and were defined as a known partner (77.7% vs. 54.4%; P 0.001). The HIV status of online partners was more frequently reported as understood (61.4% vs. 49.4%; P 0.001), and in online ventures, perceived HIV concordance was higher (49.0% vs. 39.8%; P 0.001). Participants reported that their online partners more frequently knew the HIV status of the participant than offline partners (38.8% vs. 27.2%; P 0.001). Participants more often reported multiple sexual contacts with internet partners (50.9% vs. 41.3%; P 0.001). Sex-related substance use, alcohol use, and group sex were less frequently reported with online partners.
In univariate analysis, UAI was significantly more prone to occur in online than in offline partnerships (OR = 1.36 95 % CI 1.03-1.81) (Table 4 ). The self-perceived HIV status of the participant was firmly correlated with UAI (OR = 11.70 95 % CI 7.40-18.45). The effect of dating location on UAI differed by HIV status, as can be seen best in Table 5 Table 5 shows the organization of online dating using three distinct reference groups, one for each HIV status. Backpage Escorts Near Me Muskeg River Alberta. Among HIV-positive guys, UAI was more common in online compared to offline ventures (OR = 1.61 95 % CI 1.03-2.50). Among HIV negative men no association was apparent between UAI and internet partnerships (OR = 1.07 95 % CI 0.71-1.62). Musidora Backpage Escorts. Among HIV-oblivious guys, UAI was more common in online compared to offline partnerships, though not statistically significant (OR = 1.65 95 % CI 0.79-3.44).
In multivariate model 3 (Tables 4 and 5 ), additionally including variants concerning sexual behavior in the venture (sex-associated multiple drug use, sex frequency and partner kind), the separate effect of online dating location on UAI became somewhat more powerful (though not significant) for the HIV-positive guys (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI; 0.96-2.72), but remained similar for HIV negative guys (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48). The result of online dating on UAI became more powerful (and important) for HIV-oblivious men (aOR = 2.55 95 % CI 1.11-5.86) (Table 5 ).
The number of sex partners in the preceding 6months of the index was also associated with UAI (OR = 6.79 95 % CI 2.86-16.13 for those with 50 or more recent sex partners compared to those with fewer than 5 recent sex partners). UAI was significantly more likely if more sex acts had occurred in the partnership (OR = 16.29 95 % CI 7.07-37.52 for >10 sex acts within the venture compared to only one sex act). Other factors significantly associated with UAI were group sex within the venture, and sex-related multiple drug use within venture.
In this large study among MSM attending the STI clinic in Amsterdam, we found no signs that online dating was independently related to a higher danger of UAI than offline dating. For HIV-negative guys this dearth of assocation was clear (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48); among HIV-positive men there was a nonsignificant association between online dating and UAI (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI 0.96-2.72). Only among men who suggested they were not aware of their HIV status (a small group in this study), UAI was more common with online than offline partners.
Among HIV-positive guys, in univariate analysis UAI was reported significantly more often with online associates than with offline associates. When correcting for partner features, the effect of online/offline dating on UAI among HIV positive MSM became somewhat smaller and became non-significant; this indicates that differences in partnership variables between online and offline partnerships are in charge of the increased UAI in online established partnerships. This could be due to a mediating effect of more information on partners, (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, or to other variables. Among HIV negative guys no effect of online dating on UAI was observed, either in univariate or in some of the multivariate models. Among HIV-unaware men, online dating was correlated with UAI but only critical when adding associate and venture variants to the model.
A key strength of this study was that it explored the relation between online dating and UAI among MSM who had recent sexual contact with both online and also offline casual partners. This avoided bias due to potential differences between guys just dating online and those only dating offline, a weakness of several previous studies. Backpage Escorts Near Me Muriel Lake Alberta. Backpage escorts in Alberta, Canada. By recruiting participants at the largest STI outpatient clinic in the Netherlands we could contain a great number of MSM, and prevent potential differences in men tried through Internet or face to face interviewing, weaknesses in a few previous studies 3 , 11