Five hundred seventy-seven men (351 HIV negative, 153 HIV positive, and 73 HIV-oblivious) reported UAI in 26% of 878 online, and 23% of 903 offline casual partnerships. The crude OR of online dating for UAI was 1.36 (95 % CI 1.03-1.81). Backpage escorts near me Muriel Lake. HIV positive men were more likely to report UAI than HIV-negative men (49% vs. 28% of partnerships). Corrected for demographic features, online dating had no important effect on UAI among HIV negative and HIV status-unaware men, but HIV-positive men were more likely to have UAI with on-line partners (aOR = 1.65 95 % CI 1.05-2.57). After correction for partner and partnership characteristics the effect of online/offline dating on UAI among HIV positive MSM was reduced and no longer important.
Men who have sex with men (MSM) frequently use the Web to discover sex partners. Several research have shown that MSM are more inclined to participate in unprotected anal intercourse with sex partners they meet through the Internet (on-line) than with partners they meet at social venues (offline) 1 - 3 This implies that men who acquire partners online may be at a higher risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV 4 - 6 Although higher rates of UAI are reported with online partners, the risk of HIV transmission also depends on accurate knowledge of one's own and the sex partners' HIV status 7 - 10
A meta-analysis in 2006 found limited evidence that getting a sex partner online increases the risk of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) 3 Many previous studies compared guys with internet partners to men with offline partners. Nevertheless, men favoring online dating might differ in a variety of unmeasured regards from guys favoring offline dating, resulting in incomparable behavioural profiles. A more recent meta-analysis contained several studies examining MSM with both online and offline acquired sex partners and found evidence for an association between UAI and internet partners, which might indicate a mediating effect of more info on partners, (including perceived HIV status) on UAI 13
With increased acquaintance in sexual partnerships, for example by concordant ethnicity, age, lifestyle, HIV status, and raising sex frequency, the likelihood for UAI increase as well 14 - 16 We compared the occurrence of UAI in online acquired casual partnerships to that in offline obtained casual partnerships among MSM who reported both on-line and offline casual partners in the preceding six months. We hypothesised that MSM who date sex partners both online and offline, report more UAI with the casual partners they date online, and that this effect is partially described through better knowledge of partner features, including HIV status.
We used data from a cross sectional study focusing on spread of STI via sexual networks 15 Between July 2008 and August 2009 MSM were recruited from the STI outpatient clinic of the Public Health Service of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Men were eligible for participation if they reported sexual contact with men during the six months preceding the STI consultation, they were at least 18years old, and could understand written Dutch or English. People could participate more than once, if subsequent visits to the practice were related to a potential new STI episode. Participants were regularly screened for STI/HIV according to the standard procedures of the STI outpatient clinic 15 , 17 The study was approved by the medical ethics committee of the Academic Medical Center of Amsterdam (MEC 07/181), and written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Included in this analysis were men who reported sexual contact with at least one casual partner dated online as well one casual partner dated offline.
Participants completed a standardised anonymous survey during their visit to the STI outpatient clinic while waiting for preliminary test results after their consultation with a nurse or physician. The survey elicited information on socio-demographics and HIV status of the participant, the three most recent partners in the preceding six months, and information on sexual behavior with those partners. A detailed description of the study design as well as the survey is supplied elsewhere 15 , 18 Our chief determinant of interest, dating place (e.g., the name of a bar, park, club, or the name of a website) was obtained for every partner, and categorised into on-line (websites), and offline (physical sites) dating places. To simplify the terminology of recognizing the partners per dating place, we refer to them as online or offline partners.
HIV status of the participant was got by asking the question 'Do you understand whether you're HIV infected?', with five response alternatives: (1) I 'm definitely not HIV-infected; (2) I believe that I'm not HIV-contaminated; (3) I don't know; (4) I think I may be HIV-contaminated; (5) I know for sure that I 'm HIV-contaminated. We categorised this into HIV-negative (1,2), unknown (3), and HIV positive (4,5) status. The survey enquired about the HIV status of every sex partner with all the question: 'Do you understand whether this partner is HIV-infected?' with similar answer choices as previously. Perceived concordance in HIV status within ventures was categorised as; (1) concordant; (2) discordant; (3) unknown. The last group represents all partnerships where the participant did not know his own status, or the status of his partner, or both. In this study the HIV status of the participant is self-reported and self-perceived. The HIV status of the sexual partner is as perceived by the participant.
As a way to investigate potential disclosure of HIV status we also asked the participant whether the casual sex partner knew the HIV status of the participant, with the reply choices: (1) no, (2) potentially, (3) yes. Backpage Escorts near me Muriel Lake, Alberta. Sexual conduct with each partner was dichotomised as: (1) no anal intercourse or only shielded anal intercourse, and (2) unprotected anal intercourse. To discover the subculture, we asked whether the participant characterised himself or his partners as belonging to at least one of the following subcultures/lifestyles: casual, formal, substitute, drag, leather, military, sports, fashionable, punk/skinhead, rubber/lycra, gothic, bear, jeans, skater, or, if not one of these characteristics were related, other. Concordant lifestyle was categorised as: (1) concordant; (2) discordant. Casual partner type was categorised by the participants into (1) known traceable and (2) anonymous partners.
We compared characteristics of participants by self-reported HIV status (using 2-tests for dichotomous and categorical variables and using rank sum test for continuous variables). We compared features of participants, partners, and partnership sexual conduct by online or offline partnership, and computed P values based on logistic regression with robust standard errors, accounting for correlated data. Continuous variables (i.e., age, number of sex partners) are reported as medians with an interquartile range (IQR), and were categorised for inclusion in multivariate models. Random effects logistic regression models were used to examine the association between dating place (online versus offline) and UAI. Odds ratio tests were used to measure the value of a variable in a model.
Prior to the analyses we developed a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representing a causal model of UAI. In this model some variables were putative causes (self-reported HIV status; on-line partner acquisition), others were considered as confounders (participants' age, participants' ethnicity, and no. Backpage Escorts near me Muriel Lake Canada. Backpage Escorts Near Me Musidora Alberta. Backpage Escorts Near Me Muriel Alberta. of male sex partners in preceding 6months), and some were assumed to be on the causal pathway between the main exposure of interest and outcome (age difference between participant and partner; ethnic concordance; concordance in life styles; HIV concordance; partnership kind; sex frequency within partnership; group sex with partner; sex-associated substance use in venture).