Five hundred seventy-seven guys (351 HIV negative, 153 HIV-positive, and 73 HIV-oblivious) reported UAI in 26% of 878 online, and 23% of 903 offline casual partnerships. The crude OR of online dating for UAI was 1.36 (95 % CI 1.03-1.81). Backpage escorts near me Kilsyth. HIV positive men were more likely to report UAI than HIV-negative men (49% vs. 28% of partnerships). Corrected for demographic features, online dating had no significant effect on UAI among HIV negative and HIV status-oblivious men, but HIV positive men were more likely to have UAI with online partners (aOR = 1.65 95 % CI 1.05-2.57). After correction for partner and partnership features the effect of online/offline dating on UAI among HIV positive MSM was reduced and no longer critical.
Men who have sex with men (MSM) often utilize the Internet to locate sex partners. Several studies have shown that MSM are more prone to engage in unprotected anal intercourse with sex partners they meet through the Internet (online) than with partners they meet at social sites (offline) 1 - 3 This implies that men who get partners online may be at a higher risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV 4 - 6 Although higher rates of UAI are reported with internet partners, the risk of HIV transmission also depends on accurate knowledge of one's own and the sex partners' HIV status 7 - 10
A meta-evaluation in 2006 found limited evidence that getting a sex partner online raises the danger of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) 3 Many previous studies compared guys with internet partners to guys with offline partners. Yet, guys favoring online dating might differ in several unmeasured respects from guys favoring offline dating, resulting in incomparable behavioural profiles. A more recent meta-analysis included several studies examining MSM with both online and also offline acquired sex partners and found evidence for an association between UAI and on-line partners, which might indicate a mediating effect of more info on partners, (including perceived HIV status) on UAI 13
With increased familiarity in sexual partnerships, for example by concordant ethnicity, age, lifestyle, HIV status, and raising sex frequency, the chances for UAI increase as well 14 - 16 We compared the incidence of UAI in online got casual partnerships to that in offline acquired casual partnerships among MSM who reported both on-line and offline casual partners in the preceding six months. We hypothesised that MSM who date sex partners both online and offline, report more UAI with the casual partners they date on the internet, and that this effect is partly explained through better understanding of partner characteristics, including HIV status.
We used data from a cross sectional study focusing on spread of STI via sexual networks 15 Between July 2008 and August 2009 MSM were recruited from the STI outpatient clinic of the Public Health Service of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Men were eligible for participation if they reported sexual contact with men during the six months preceding the STI consultation, they were at least 18years old, and may understand written Dutch or English. People could participate more than once, if following visits to the clinic were related to a potential new STI episode. Participants were regularly screened for STI/HIV according to the standard procedures of the STI outpatient clinic 15 , 17 The study was approved by the medical ethics committee of the Academic Medical Center of Amsterdam (MEC 07/181), and written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Contained in this evaluation were guys who reported sexual contact with at least one casual partner dated online as well one casual partner dated offline.
Participants completed a standardised anonymous questionnaire throughout their trip to the STI outpatient clinic while waiting for preliminary evaluation results after their consultation with a nurse or physician. The questionnaire elicited information on socio-demographics and HIV status of the participant, the three most recent partners in the preceding six months, and information on sexual conduct with those partners. A comprehensive description of the study design and also the survey is supplied elsewhere 15 , 18 Our chief determinant of interest, dating location (e.g., the name of a pub, park, club, or the name of a website) was obtained for every partner, and categorised into on-line (websites), and offline (physical sites) dating locations. To simplify the language of recognizing the partners per dating location, we refer to them as online or offline partners.
HIV status of the participant was got by asking the question 'Do you understand whether you are HIV infected?', with five response choices: (1) I 'm definitely not HIV-contaminated; (2) I believe that I'm not HIV-contaminated; (3) I do not understand; (4) I think I may be HIV-infected; (5) I know for sure that I 'm HIV-contaminated. We categorised this into HIV-negative (1,2), unknown (3), and HIV positive (4,5) status. The survey enquired about the HIV status of each sex partner with the question: 'Do you know whether this partner is HIV-infected?' with similar reply choices as previously. Perceived concordance in HIV status within ventures was categorised as; (1) concordant; (2) discordant; (3) unknown. The final group represents all partnerships where the participant did not know his own status, or the status of his partner, or both. In this study the HIV status of the participant is self-reported and self-perceived. The HIV status of the sexual partner is as perceived by the participant.
As a way to explore possible disclosure of HIV status we additionally asked the participant whether the casual sex partner understood the HIV status of the participant, together with the response choices: (1) no, (2) potentially, (3) yes. Backpage escorts in Kilsyth, Alberta. Sexual behaviour with each partner was dichotomised as: (1) no anal intercourse or only protected anal intercourse, and (2) unprotected anal intercourse. To discover the subculture, we asked whether the participant characterised himself or his partners as belonging to at least one of the following subcultures/lifestyles: casual, formal, alternate, drag, leather, military, sports, fashionable, punk/skinhead, rubber/lycra, gothic, bear, jeans, skater, or, if not one of these features were applicable, other. Concordant lifestyle was categorised as: (1) concordant; (2) discordant. Chance partner kind was categorised by the participants into (1) known traceable and (2) anonymous partners.
We compared characteristics of participants by self-reported HIV status (using 2-tests for dichotomous and categorical variables and using rank sum test for continuous variables). We compared characteristics of participants, partners, and partnership sexual behaviour by online or offline partnership, and computed P values based on logistic regression with robust standard errors, accounting for correlated data. Continuous variables (i.e., age, amount of sex partners) are reported as medians with an interquartile range (IQR), and were categorised for inclusion in multivariate models. Random effects logistic regression models were used to examine the association between dating location (online versus offline) and UAI. Odds ratio tests were used to measure the significance of a variable in a model.
Prior to the evaluations we developed a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representing a causal model of UAI. In this model some variants were putative causes (self-reported HIV status; online partner acquisition), others were considered as confounders (participants' age, participants' ethnicity, and no. Backpage Escorts near me Kilsyth Canada. Backpage Escorts Near Me Kimball Alberta. Backpage Escorts Near Me Killarney Lake Alberta. of male sex partners in preceding 6months), and some were presumed to be on the causal pathway between the main exposure of interest and result (age difference between participant and partner; ethnic concordance; concordance in life styles; HIV concordance; partnership type; sex frequency within venture; group sex with partner; sex-associated material use in venture).