In order to analyze the potential mediating effect of more info on partners (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, we developed three multivariable models. In version 1, we adapted the organization between online/offline dating location and UAI for characteristics of the participant: age, ethnicity, number of sex partners in the preceding 6months, and self-perceived HIV status. In model 2 we added the venture features (age difference, ethnic concordance, lifestyle concordance, and HIV concordance). In version 3, we adapted also for partnership sexual risk behaviour (i.e., sex-associated drug use and sex frequency) and partnership kind (i.e., casual or anonymous). As we assumed a differential effect of dating place for HIV-positive, HIV-negative and HIV status unknown MSM, an interaction between HIV status of the participant and dating location was contained in all three models by making a brand new six-category variable. For clarity, the effects of online/offline dating on UAI are also presented individually for HIV negative, HIV-positive, and HIV-oblivious guys. We performed a sensitivity analysis confined to partnerships in which only one sexual contact occurred. Statistical significance was defined as P 0.05. No adjustments for multiple comparisons were made, in order not to miss potentially important organizations. Backpage Escorts nearby Gayford. As a rather big number of statistical tests were done and reported, this approach does lead to a heightened risk of one or more false-positive associations. Evaluations were done utilizing the statistical programme STATA, version 13 (STATA Intercooled, College Station, TX, USA).
Characteristics of online and offline partners and ventures are revealed in Table 2 The median age of the partners was 34years (IQR 28-40). Compared to offline partners, more online partners were Dutch (61.3% vs. 54.0%; P 0.001) and were defined as a known partner (77.7% vs. 54.4%; P 0.001). The HIV status of on-line partners was more frequently reported as known (61.4% vs. 49.4%; P 0.001), and in online ventures, perceived HIV concordance was higher (49.0% vs. 39.8%; P 0.001). Participants reported that their online partners more frequently knew the HIV status of the participant than offline partners (38.8% vs. 27.2%; P 0.001). Participants more often reported multiple sexual contacts with online partners (50.9% vs. 41.3%; P 0.001). Sex-related substance use, alcohol use, and group sex were less often reported with on-line partners.
In univariate analysis, UAI was significantly more likely to occur in on-line than in offline ventures (OR = 1.36 95 % CI 1.03-1.81) (Table 4 ). The self-perceived HIV status of the participant was firmly connected with UAI (OR = 11.70 95 % CI 7.40-18.45). The impact of dating location on UAI differed by HIV status, as can be seen best in Table 5 Table 5 shows the organization of online dating using three different reference categories, one for each HIV status. Backpage Escorts Near Me Geikie Alberta. Among HIV-positive guys, UAI was more common in online in comparison to offline ventures (OR = 1.61 95 % CI 1.03-2.50). Among HIV-negative men no association was evident between UAI and on-line partnerships (OR = 1.07 95 % CI 0.71-1.62). Gayford backpage escorts. Among HIV-unaware men, UAI was more common in online in comparison to offline ventures, though not statistically significant (OR = 1.65 95 % CI 0.79-3.44).
In multivariate model 3 (Tables 4 and 5 ), also including variables concerning sexual behavior in the venture (sex-associated multiple drug use, sex frequency and partner kind), the independent effect of online dating place on UAI became somewhat more powerful (though not critical) for the HIV-positive guys (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI; 0.96-2.72), but remained similar for HIV negative men (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48). The result of online dating on UAI became more powerful (and essential) for HIV-oblivious guys (aOR = 2.55 95 % CI 1.11-5.86) (Table 5 ).
The number of sex partners in the preceding 6months of the index was likewise correlated with UAI (OR = 6.79 95 % CI 2.86-16.13 for those with 50 or more recent sex partners compared to those with fewer than 5 recent sex partners). UAI was significantly more likely if more sex acts had happened in the partnership (OR = 16.29 95 % CI 7.07-37.52 for >10 sex acts within the venture compared to just one sex act). Other factors significantly associated with UAI were group sex within the partnership, and sex-related multiple drug use within venture.
In this large study among MSM attending the STI clinic in Amsterdam, we found no evidence that online dating was independently associated with a higher risk of UAI than offline dating. For HIV negative men this dearth of assocation was clear (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48); among HIV positive men there was a non significant association between online dating and UAI (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI 0.96-2.72). Just among men who indicated they were not informed of their HIV status (a small group in this study), UAI was more common with on-line than offline partners.
Among HIV positive men, in univariate analysis UAI was reported significantly more frequently with online associates than with offline associates. When adjusting for partner features, the effect of online/offline dating on UAI among HIV positive MSM became somewhat smaller and became non-significant; this indicates that differences in partnership factors between online and offline partnerships are responsible for the increased UAI in online established partnerships. This may be due to a mediating effect of more information on associates, (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, or to other variables. Among HIV negative men no effect of online dating on UAI was found, either in univariate or in any of the multivariate models. Among HIV-unaware guys, online dating was associated with UAI but only important when adding partner and venture variables to the model.
An integral strength of this study was that it investigated the relationship between online dating and UAI among MSM who had recent sexual contact with both online and offline casual partners. This prevented prejudice caused by potential differences between men only dating online and those simply dating offline, a weakness of numerous previous studies. Backpage Escorts Near Me Gatine Alberta. Backpage escorts nearest Alberta, Canada. By recruiting participants at the largest STI outpatient clinic in the Netherlands we could include a high number of MSM, and avoid potential differences in men tried through Internet or face-to-face interviewing, weaknesses in a few previous studies 3 , 11