Five hundred seventy-seven men (351 HIV negative, 153 HIV positive, and 73 HIV-oblivious) reported UAI in 26% of 878 on-line, and 23% of 903 offline casual partnerships. The crude OR of online dating for UAI was 1.36 (95 % CI 1.03-1.81). Backpage escorts nearest Gatine. HIV positive men were more likely to report UAI than HIV-negative men (49% vs. 28% of ventures). Adjusted for demographic features, online dating had no important effect on UAI among HIV negative and HIV status-oblivious guys, but HIV positive men were more likely to have UAI with online partners (aOR = 1.65 95 % CI 1.05-2.57). After correction for associate and partnership characteristics the effect of online/offline dating on UAI among HIV positive MSM was reduced and no longer essential.
Men who have sex with men (MSM) frequently utilize the Internet to locate sex partners. Several research have shown that MSM are more prone to engage in unprotected anal intercourse with sex partners they meet through the Internet (online) than with partners they meet at social venues (offline) 1 - 3 This suggests that guys who acquire partners online may be at a higher risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV 4 - 6 Although higher rates of UAI are reported with on-line partners, the risk of HIV transmission also depends upon precise knowledge of one's own and the sex partners' HIV status 7 - 10
A meta-analysis in 2006 found limited evidence that getting a sex partner online raises the risk of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) 3 Many previous studies compared men with online partners to men with offline partners. Nonetheless, men preferring online dating might differ in a variety of unmeasured regards from men preferring offline dating, leading to incomparable behavioural profiles. A more recent meta-analysis contained several studies analyzing MSM with both online and also offline acquired sex partners and found evidence for an association between UAI and internet partners, which might imply a mediating effect of more info on partners, (including perceived HIV status) on UAI 13
With increased familiarity in sexual partnerships, for example by concordant ethnicity, age, lifestyle, HIV status, and increasing sex frequency, the odds for UAI increase as well 14 - 16 We compared the incidence of UAI in online got casual partnerships to that in offline obtained casual partnerships among MSM who reported both online and offline casual partners in the preceding six months. We hypothesised that MSM who date sex partners both online and offline, report more UAI with the casual partners they date online, and that this effect is partially described through better understanding of partner characteristics, including HIV status.
We used data from a cross-sectional study focusing on spread of STI via sexual networks 15 Between July 2008 and August 2009 MSM were recruited from the STI outpatient clinic of the Public Health Service of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Men were eligible for participation if they reported sexual contact with men during the six months preceding the STI consultation, they were at least 18years old, and could comprehend written Dutch or English. People could participate more than once, if following visits to the practice were related to a potential new STI episode. Participants were regularly screened for STI/HIV according to the standard procedures of the STI outpatient clinic 15 , 17 The study was accepted by the medical ethics committee of the Academic Medical Center of Amsterdam (MEC 07/181), and written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Included in this investigation were guys who reported sexual contact with at least one casual partner dated online as well one casual partner dated offline.
Participants completed a standardised anonymous survey throughout their trip to the STI outpatient clinic while waiting for preliminary test results after their consultation with a nurse or physician. The questionnaire elicited information on socio-demographics and HIV status of the participant, the three most recent partners in the preceding six months, and information on sexual behavior with those partners. A comprehensive description of the study design and also the questionnaire is provided elsewhere 15 , 18 Our main determinant of interest, dating place (e.g., the name of a bar, park, club, or the name of a site) was obtained for every partner, and categorised into on-line (websites), and offline (physical sites) dating places. To simplify the terminology of differentiating the partners per dating location, we refer to them as online or offline partners.
HIV status of the participant was obtained by asking the question 'Do you understand whether you are HIV infected?', with five response choices: (1) I am certainly not HIV-infected; (2) I think that I'm not HIV-infected; (3) I don't understand; (4) I believe I may be HIV-contaminated; (5) I know for sure that I 'm HIV-contaminated. We categorised this into HIV-negative (1,2), unknown (3), and HIV-positive (4,5) status. The questionnaire enquired about the HIV status of each sex partner with all the question: 'Do you know whether this partner is HIV-infected?' with similar reply alternatives as previously. Perceived concordance in HIV status within ventures was categorised as; (1) concordant; (2) discordant; (3) unknown. The last group represents all partnerships where the participant did not know his own status, or the status of his partner, or both. In this study the HIV status of the participant is self-reported and self-perceived. The HIV status of the sexual partner is as perceived by the participant.
In order to investigate potential disclosure of HIV status we additionally asked the participant whether the casual sex partner understood the HIV status of the participant, together with the response options: (1) no, (2) possibly, (3) yes. Backpage escorts closest to Gatine, Alberta. Sexual behavior with each partner was dichotomised as: (1) no anal intercourse or just shielded anal intercourse, and (2) unprotected anal intercourse. To determine the subculture, we asked whether the participant characterised himself or his partners as belonging to at least one of the following subcultures/lifestyles: casual, formal, substitute, drag, leather, military, sports, fashionable, punk/skinhead, rubber/lycra, gothic, bear, jeans, skater, or, if none of these features were related, other. Concordant lifestyle was categorised as: (1) concordant; (2) discordant. Casual partner type was categorised by the participants into (1) known traceable and (2) anonymous partners.
We compared characteristics of participants by self-reported HIV status (using 2-tests for dichotomous and categorical variables and using rank sum test for continuous variables). We compared features of participants, partners, and venture sexual behaviour by online or offline venture, and calculated P values based on logistic regression with robust standard errors, accounting for correlated data. Continuous variables (i.e., age, number of sex partners) are reported as medians with an interquartile range (IQR), and were categorised for inclusion in multivariate models. Random effects logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between dating location (online versus offline) and UAI. Likelihood ratio tests were used to measure the value of a variable in a model.
Before the analyses we developed a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representing a causal model of UAI. In this model some variables were putative causes (self-reported HIV status; on-line partner acquisition), others were considered as confounders (participants' age, participants' ethnicity, and no. Backpage escorts closest to Gatine, Canada. Backpage Escorts Near Me Gayford Alberta. Backpage Escorts Near Me Gartly Alberta. of male sex partners in preceding 6months), and some were presumed to be on the causal pathway between the principal exposure of interest and results (age difference between participant and partner; ethnic concordance; concordance in life styles; HIV concordance; venture type; sex frequency within partnership; group sex with partner; sex-associated material use in partnership).