Five hundred seventy-seven men (351 HIV-negative, 153 HIV-positive, and 73 HIV-oblivious) reported UAI in 26% of 878 on-line, and 23% of 903 offline casual partnerships. The crude OR of online dating for UAI was 1.36 (95 % CI 1.03-1.81). Backpage escorts near me Crammond. HIV-positive men were more likely to report UAI than HIV negative men (49% vs. 28% of partnerships). Corrected for demographic features, online dating had no important effect on UAI among HIV negative and HIV status-oblivious guys, but HIV positive men were more likely to have UAI with on-line partners (aOR = 1.65 95 % CI 1.05-2.57). After correction for associate and partnership characteristics the effect of online/offline dating on UAI among HIV positive MSM was reduced and no longer critical.
Men who have sex with men (MSM) often make use of the Net to discover sex partners. Several studies have revealed that MSM are more likely to engage in unprotected anal intercourse with sex partners they meet through the Internet (online) than with partners they meet at social sites (offline) 1 - 3 This indicates that men who acquire partners online may be at a higher risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV 4 - 6 Although higher rates of UAI are reported with on-line partners, the risk of HIV transmission also depends on exact knowledge of one's own and the sex partners' HIV status 7 - 10
A meta-evaluation in 2006 found limited evidence that acquiring a sex partner online increases the danger of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) 3 Many previous studies compared guys with internet partners to men with offline partners. Nonetheless, guys preferring online dating might differ in various unmeasured regards from guys favoring offline dating, causing incomparable behavioural profiles. A more recent meta-analysis included several studies analyzing MSM with both online and offline acquired sex partners and found evidence for an association between UAI and online partners, which would imply a mediating effect of more info on partners, (including perceived HIV status) on UAI 13
With increased acquaintance in sexual partnerships, for example by concordant ethnicity, age, lifestyle, HIV status, and raising sex frequency, the chances for UAI increase as well 14 - 16 We compared the incidence of UAI in online got casual partnerships to that in offline acquired casual partnerships among MSM who reported both online and offline casual partners in the preceding six months. We hypothesised that MSM who date sex partners both online and offline, report more UAI with the casual partners they date on the internet, and that this effect is partially described through better knowledge of partner characteristics, including HIV status.
We used data from a cross-sectional study focusing on spread of STI via sexual networks 15 Between July 2008 and August 2009 MSM were recruited from the STI outpatient clinic of the Public Health Service of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Men were eligible for participation if they reported sexual contact with men during the six months preceding the STI consultation, they were at least 18years old, and may comprehend written Dutch or English. People could participate more than once, if subsequent visits to the clinic were related to a potential new STI episode. Participants were routinely screened for STI/HIV according to the standard procedures of the STI outpatient clinic 15 , 17 The study was accepted by the medical ethics committee of the Academic Medical Center of Amsterdam (MEC 07/181), and written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Contained in this evaluation were guys who reported sexual contact with at least one casual partner dated online as well one casual partner dated offline.
Participants completed a standardised anonymous survey throughout their visit to the STI outpatient clinic while waiting for preliminary evaluation results after their consultation using a nurse or physician. The survey elicited information on socio-demographics and HIV status of the participant, the three most recent partners in the preceding six months, and information on sexual behavior with those partners. A comprehensive description of the study design and also the survey is supplied elsewhere 15 , 18 Our primary determinant of interest, dating place (e.g., the name of a pub, park, club, or the name of a web site) was obtained for every partner, and categorised into on-line (websites), and offline (physical sites) dating locations. To simplify the terminology of differentiating the partners per dating location, we refer to them as online or offline partners.
HIV status of the participant was got by asking the question 'Do you know whether you're HIV infected?', with five response choices: (1) I 'm definitely not HIV-contaminated; (2) I believe that I'm not HIV-infected; (3) I don't understand; (4) I think I may be HIV-infected; (5) I know for sure that I am HIV-contaminated. We categorised this into HIV negative (1,2), unknown (3), and HIV-positive (4,5) status. The survey enquired about the HIV status of each sex partner together with the question: 'Do you know whether this partner is HIV-infected?' with similar response choices as above. Perceived concordance in HIV status within partnerships was categorised as; (1) concordant; (2) discordant; (3) unknown. The last class represents all partnerships where the participant did not understand his own status, or the status of his partner, or both. In this study the HIV status of the participant is self-reported and self-perceived. The HIV status of the sexual partner is as perceived by the participant.
In order to explore possible disclosure of HIV status we additionally asked the participant whether the casual sex partner knew the HIV status of the participant, with the answer choices: (1) no, (2) perhaps, (3) yes. Backpage escorts closest to Crammond, Alberta. Sexual conduct with each partner was dichotomised as: (1) no anal intercourse or only shielded anal intercourse, and (2) unprotected anal intercourse. To discover the subculture, we asked whether the participant characterised himself or his partners as belonging to one or more of the subsequent subcultures/lifestyles: casual, formal, substitute, drag, leather, military, sports, fashionable, punk/skinhead, rubber/lycra, gothic, bear, jeans, skater, or, if none of these characteristics were applicable, other. Concordant lifestyle was categorised as: (1) concordant; (2) discordant. Accidental partner kind was categorised by the participants into (1) known traceable and (2) anonymous partners.
We compared characteristics of participants by self-reported HIV status (using 2-tests for dichotomous and categorical variables and using rank sum test for continuous variables). We compared characteristics of participants, partners, and partnership sexual conduct by online or offline partnership, and computed P values predicated on logistic regression with robust standard errors, accounting for linked data. Continuous variables (i.e., age, number of sex partners) are reported as medians with an interquartile range (IQR), and were categorised for inclusion in multivariate models. Random effects logistic regression models were used to examine the association between dating place (online versus offline) and UAI. Likelihood ratio tests were used to evaluate the significance of a variable in a model.
Before the evaluations we developed a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representing a causal model of UAI. In this model some variants were putative causes (self-reported HIV status; online partner acquisition), others were considered as confounders (participants' age, participants' ethnicity, and no. Backpage escorts closest to Crammond Canada. Backpage Escorts Near Me Cranford Alberta. Backpage Escorts Near Me Craigmyle Alberta. of male sex partners in preceding 6months), and some were assumed to be on the causal pathway between the main exposure of interest and outcome (age difference between participant and partner; ethnic concordance; concordance in life styles; HIV concordance; venture sort; sex frequency within venture; group sex with partner; sex-associated material use in venture).